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Atmospheric Co2 Consequences of Heavy Dependence on Coal

By: Ralph M. Rotty

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The release of carbon as COz as a result of fossil fuel use has been increasing at an exponential rate for more than 100 years. If this expansion continues, the concentration of COI in the atmosphere may be doubled in the next 60 years or so. The effects on global climate may well become apparent suddenly, and because of the great momentum developed by the machinery that produces mans energy, could grow out of control before remedial actions become effective.

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Preferential Dna Repair in Expressed Genes

By: Philip C. Hanawalt

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In studying the complex relationships between the repair of damaged DNA in mammalian cells and biological end points such as survival, mutagenesis, and transformation, the repair proficiency has usually been assumed to be uniform throughout the genome and even within cell populations. However, we now know that DNA damage in some regions of the genome is processed much more efficiently than that in others (1,2). Heterogeneity in repair would result in correspondi...

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Pulmonary Metabolism of Foreign Compounds : Its Role in Metabolic ...

By: Gerald M. Cohen

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The lung is the major portal of entry into the body of all inhaled compounds such as those contained in polluted city air, tobacco smoke, and medicinal and household aerosols. The very large surface area of the alveoli (about 70 m besides being ideally suited for the function of gas exchange, also facilitates the penetration into the body of these potentially toxic agents. As the entire cardiac output passes through the lungs, all chemicals present in the circul...

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Health-Related Benefits of Attaining the 8-Hr Ozone Standard

By: Bryan J. Hubbell

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: During the 2000?2002 time period, between 36 and 56% of ozone monitors each year in the United States failed to meet the current ozone standard of 80 ppb for the fourth highest maximum 8-hr ozone concentration. We estimated the health benefits of attaining the ozone standard at these monitors using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program. We used health impact functions based on published epidemiologic studie...

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Naturally Occurring Nonneoplastic Histopathological Lesions in the...

By: Robert M. Kovatch

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: SENCAR mice have been developed for susceptibility to skin tumor response using a two-stage tumor induction regimen (I$). A paucity of information is available on the naturally occurring lesions in this strain. It is the purpose of this paper to present a survey of lesions encountered in control and treated female SENCAR mice used in short-term EPA Carcinogenesis Testing Matrix Studies. Inasmuch as only target tissues and organs with gross lesions were examined ...

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Toxicity of Polybrominated Biphenyls (Pbbs)I N Omestica Nd Aborato...

By: Terri Damstra

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) have been widely used as flame retardants in industrial and consumer products. In 1973, PBBs accidentally entered the food chain in Michigan, when Firemaster FF-1, a commercial flame retardant, was inadvertently substituted for magnesium oxide used as a supplement in the formulation of cattle feed (1). Ten to twenty bags, 50 lb each, of PBBs were mixed into feeds that were widely distributed to Michigan farmers, and consumed ...

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Chemical and Biological Characterization of Emissions from Coal- a...

By: G. Nordberg

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Sweden is heavily dependent on oil as a source of energy. In order to reduce this oil dependence it has been considered useful to reintroduce coal for energy production purposes. While the present usage of coal for production of heat and electricity is negligible, it is foreseen that approximately 6 million tons of coal will be used in 1990, with a further increase later on. In order to assess the potential health effects of increased coal utilization, a compari...

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Lessons from the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbdes) : Precauti...

By: Kim Hooper

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Levels of chemicals in humans (body burdens) are useful indicators of environmental quality and of community health. Chemical body burdens are easily monitored using breast milk samples collected from first-time mothers (primiparae) with infants 2?8 weeks of age. Currently, there is no body-burden monitoring program using breast milk in the United States, although ad hoc systems operate successfully in several European countries. In this article we describe the ...

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Methylmercury and Childrens Heart Function

By: Rebecca Renner

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Pregnant women who consume significant amounts of seafood may have a new reason to take precautions against methylmercury, the most hazardous form of mercury: a recent study suggests that when expectant women consume fish containing high levels of the toxicant, their children?s future cardiovascular health may be jeopardized.

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Pulmonary and Gastrointestinal Exposure to Cadmium Oxide Dust in a...

By: E. Adamsson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: When estimating dose-response relationships for cadmium the methods available today make it possible to get relatively good estimates of the response. The degree of kidney involvement can be estimated by determination of total protein, electrophoretic examination of urine proteins, and the quantitative determination of a specific low molecular weight protein, e.g., pi-microglobulin have been used. It is doubtful if these concentrations accurately reflect en...

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Experimental Lnfection of the Respiratory Tract with Mycoplasma Pn...

By: Ping Chuan Hu

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Mycoplrr.snlo pnerrnlonioe is one of the most common pathogens of the human respiratory tract. Jnfection with this agent is the leading cause of acute pneumonitis in high contact environments such as college campuses and military bases, as well as being a common cause of respiratory illness in children (I) . Illnesses associated with M. pneumonirre infections range from mild upper respiratory infection, through tracheobronchitis, to acute pneumonia (2). The...

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Ntp Multigenerational Study of Environmental Estrogens

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Nearly 10 years ago, researchers with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) began a complex set of experiments in rats to determine whether exposure to estrogenic compounds throughout life and across generations could cause changes in development or patterns of endocrine-related cancers at doses that cause only subtle reproductive effects. Now, at last, specialists in the field of endocrine-active chemica...

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Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages in Molecular Epidemiology and Chemo...

By: Silvio de Flora

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In addition to posswsing an extraordinary sweeping activity, pulmonary alvedar macrophages (PAM) are equipped with the biochemical mechanism involvedin the metabolism ofeareinogens, which were foundto heinduciblein humans by cigarette smoke. Moreover, several defense processes were stimulated in rat PAM after in vivo administration of the antkarcinoeen N-acetvlevsteine (.N AC.) . Beda.lo ..r .re ne did enwide (BPDELDNA adduets. as w d e dh v .wnehmmv , fluoresce...

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Health Risks from Increases in Methylmercury Exposure

By: N. Karle Mottet

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The chemical form of mercury and the dose alters the selection of the target organ (1). For example, inhalation of metallic mercury (Hgo) vapor in sufficient quantity leads to severe toxic injury to the lung alveoli and blood vessels which, in turn, produces pulmonary edema. The edema fluid interferes with the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This pathological sequence with the lung as target organ is often the result of occupational exposures ...

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Ventilatory Lung Function and Chronic Chest Symptoms Among the Inh...

By: Wieslaw Jedrychowski

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The effect of atmospheric air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases has been studied in numerous epidemiological surveys (1-5). Extensive cross-sectional studies showed a gradation of symptoms across the levels of pollution; however, as pollution was measured in different ways in each of the studies, it is di ficult to deduce any quantitative relationships with sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM). Some of the studies indicated that increase...

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Developing Standards for Environmental Toxicants : The Need to Con...

By: H. Babich and G. Stotzky

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Through a variety of Federal statutes, including the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970, the Clean Water Act (CWA) as amended in 1977, the Federal Insecticide. Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) of 1972, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with protecting the health an...

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Polymorphisms for Aromatic Amine Metabolism in Humans : Relevance ...

By: Fred F. Kadlubar

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The wide variation in carcinogen metabolism in humans has long been regarded as an important determinant of individual susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis (1,Z). In the case of aromatic amine carcinogens, it has become apparent that the biochemical basis for these differences may be the polymorphic distribution of specific carcinogen- metabolizing enzymes involved in their activation and1 or detoxification (3,4). These polymorphisms can arise from bot...

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Damage to Hepatic Cellular Membranes by Chlorinated Olefins with E...

By: Edward S. Reynolds

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Our studies of the acute hepatotoxicity of the chloroethylenes have shown not only certain similarities in their biologic effects, but marked differences in both relative toxicity and in the pattern of hepatocellular injury. These marked difierences suggest that the chloroethyfenes produce injury by more than one mechanism. The relative reactivity of these molecules is affected by the extent to which their electron distribution is altered by chlorine substi...

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Toxicology of Organic Drinking Water Contaminants : Trichlorometha...

By: Albert E. Munson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: was accomplished by chlorination contained the In a study involving 80 U.S. cities, trichloro- highest levels of halomethanes. Total trihalomethane methane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloro- tchoen centrations weorf e,r afwor wthaet emr ocsot nptaairnti,n rge loartgedan tioc methane, or tribromomethane were found in all finished drinking water supplies at levels up to 311 material. pgfl. (1). Finished water supplies for which surface At present the effec...

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Cooperation Achieves Results at Unc-Ch

By: Mary W. Eubanks

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Perou and colleagues have discovered that although the compounds tested have different mechanisms and targets in cells, the overall cellular response to the different drugs is the same?a sort of dominant generic stress response that is similar across genes. The secondary drug-specific response pattern is layered on top of this generic stress response pattern. Perou says, ?Arrays do a great job of implicating genes in certain processes in response to different dr...

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