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Cancer Mortality and Environmental Exposure to Dde in the United S...

By: Pierluigi Cocco

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Agricultural use of the insecticide DDT was banned in 1973 in the United States and in most Western countries. However, some Eastern European countries and numerous developing countries still use DDT, primarily in the prevention of malaria, typhus, yellow fever, and sleeping sickness (1). The current industrial production of DDT is only a small fraction of the 80,000 tons produced in 1963. However, concern exists over possible health consequences of its indiscri...

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Effect of Lead Intoxication on the Postnatal Growth of the Rat Ner...

By: Martin R. Krigman

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Lead encephalopathy was induced in developing Long-Evans rata by adding lead carbonate (4% wlw) to the diet of nursing mother immediately after delivery. The morphological and biochemical features of cerebral ontogenesis were studied in 30-dayold rats. By the 30th postnatal day, the overall effect of lead intoxication was retardation of brain growth. The mass of both the cerebral gray and white matter was appreciably reduced in the lead rats without any reductio...

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Intensive Livestock Operations, Health, And Quality of Life Among ...

By: Steve Wing

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Industrial hog production has grown rapidly in North Carolina since the early 1980s. Once characterized by relatively small independently owned farms scattered across the state, hog production in North Carolina is now concentrated in the coastal plain region, under the domain of large corporate growers, and dominated by large-scale intensive operations (1,2). Persons who live near large hog operations have reported reduced quality of life as well as health probl...

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Water Pollution Reviving Chinas Ruined Rivers

By: Ron Chepesiuk

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The decline in water conditions across China is directly related to Chinas population growth, strong economic growth, and uncontrolled urbanization and semiurbanization. The worst decline in water quality occurred over the period 1985?1995 with the boom of unregulated township and village enterprises (TVEs) across Chinas countryside, says Jostein Nygard, coeditor of China: Air, Land, and Water. These small communally owned and operated industries provide minimal...

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Genotoxicity of 1, 4=Benzoquinone and 1, Cnaphthoquinone in Relati...

By: Gabriele Ludewig

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: 1,4-Benzoquinone, a metabolite of benzene, is a potent mutagen in V79 Chinese hamster cells (1). The reason for this effect is not known, but it may involve one or several of the following mechanisms. Quinones are electrophiles and may undergo addition reactions with nucleophiles (Michael reaction). Indeed, when 1,4-benzoquinone was incubated in buffer with deoxyguanosine, adducts were formed (2). Alternative target stmctures are thiol groups and other nucleophi...

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Arsenic-Induced Enhancement of Ultraviolet Radiation Carcinogenesi...

By: Fredric J. Burns

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The present study was designed to establish the form of the dose?response relationship for dietary sodium arsenite as a co-carcinogen with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a mouse skin model. Hairless mice (strain Skh1) were fed sodium arsenite continuously in drinking water starting at 21 days of age at concentrations of 0.0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/L. At 42 days of age, solar spectrum UVR exposures were applied three times weekly to the dorsal skin at 1.0 kJ/m...

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Chemically Induced Leukemia in Humans

By: Richard H. Adamson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The incidence of all types of leukemia in the general population is approximately 61100,000 per year (I). Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) accounted for36% of all leukemias diagnosed in the U.S. between 1954 and 1964, and for 44% of leukemias detected between 1965 and 1969 (2). The etiology of ANLL is largely unknown, although there is some evidence that chromosome breakage and/or aneuploidy may be a factor. For example, patients with Downs, Fanconis, o...

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 107, No. 12, December 1999...

By: Bruce Hocking

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: I was glad to read the abstract of Harrison et al. (1) on the Web; this paper supports our work currently being done. I just returned from a cooperative program in Australia with Forestry and Forest Products-CSIRO, where methods were being developed to replace asbestos in fiber?cement products.

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 9, September 2006...

By: Tim Lougheed

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: A Window on Disease Underlying the work presented in PLoS Medicine is the principle of the scan statistic, which offers a probability of an excessive number of case reports appearing within a narrowly defined space and time, as compared with a probability determined from information collected in a larger region or over a longer period. Scan statistics arent new, but the PLoS Medicine paper adds a twist: the calculation of probabilities for disease outbreak withi...

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Aurninum in the Environment and Human Health

By: John R. J. Sorenson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: In 1957, several members of the Department of Environmental Health of the University of Cincinnati collaborated in a review of the hygienic status of aluminum in the environment of man (1). The review encompassed the history of the development and use of metallic aluminum and of the principal aluminum salts, the chemistry and analysis of aluminum in various media, its natural occurrence in the human environment, the uses and suitability in the processing an...

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Characteristics of Cytochrome P-450 and Mixed Function 0Xidase Enz...

By: J. G. Dent

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) have, since 1974, become recognized as environmental contaminants, particularly in Michigan (1, 2) and more recently in other states in America @). The PBBs in FireMaster BP-6 (also referred to as Fire- Master FF-1 when mixed with an anticaking agent, calcium polysilicate) are a mixture of brominated biphenyls, of which the major components are 2,- 2,4,4,5,5-hexabromobiphenyl, which comprises about 60% of the mixture (4-6...

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Thermal Modification of Chrysotile Asbestos : Evidence for Decreas...

By: R. Valentine

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Numerous investigations have attempted to correlate the physical and chemical characteristics of asbestos with its associated biological toxicity (1-3). While it has been suggested (4-6) that the physical dimensions of asbestos (i.e., surface area, fiber length, diameter and aspect ratio) may affect its carcinogenicity in rats after intrapleural injection, it remains uncertain whether fiber size alone determines the carcinogenic potential. Recent findings. for e...

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The Environmentautoimmune Link

By: Jerry Phelps

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Autoimmune diseases are chronic, frequently life-threatening conditions that strike when the immune system goes awry and attacks the bodys own tissues. Although some autoimmune diseases?such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?are relatively common, many of the more than 80 identified diseases are rare. However, overall, autoimmune diseases are the third most common group of diseases in the United States; they affe...

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Influence of Pentachlorophenol on Light Emission from Single Barna...

By: Edward Bittar

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Interest has been aroused by studies on the prepared by dissolving them in dimethyl pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP), a sulfoxide (DMSO) before their addition to known cytotoxicant (I, 2), that showed ASW. The final content of DMSO in PCB can stimulate the sodium efflux in ASW containing 5 x M PCP was barnacle muscle fibers at a concentration as 0.5% (vlv). We used the buffers Heves and low as I pM and that its efficacy, which exceeds that of less-chlorinated p...

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Within-Home Versus Between-Home Variability of House Dust Endotoxi...

By: Joseph H. Abraham

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Endotoxin exposure has been proposed as an environmental determinant of allergen responses in children. To better understand the implications of using a single measurement of house dust endotoxin to characterize exposure in the first year of life, we evaluated room-specific within-home and between-home variability in dust endotoxin obtained from 470 households in Boston, Massachusetts. Homes were sampled up to two times over 5?11 months. We analyzed 1,287 dust s...

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Development of a Health-Protective Drinking Water Level for Perchl...

By: Robert A. Howd

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We evaluated animal and human toxicity data for perchlorate and identified reduction of thyroidal iodide uptake as the critical end point in the development of a health-protective drinking water level [also known as the public health goal (PHG)] for the chemical. This work was performed under the drinking water program of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment of the California Environmental Protection Agency. For dose?response characterization, we...

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Developmental Exposure of Rats to Chlorpyrifos Leads to Behavioral...

By: Justin E. Aldridge

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent changes in serotonergic (5HT) systems. We administered 1 mg/kg/day CPF to rats on postnatal days 1?4, a regimen below the threshold for systemic toxicity. When tested in adulthood, CPF-exposed animals showed abnormalities in behavioral tests that involve 5HT mechanisms. In the elevated plus maze, males treated with CPF spent more time in the open arms, an effect seen with 5HT deficiencies in animal m...

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Apparent Half-Lives of Hepta : To Decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers i...

By: Kaj Thuresson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The aim of the present study was to model apparent serum half-lives of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with 7?10 bromine substituents. Workers with occupational exposure to PBDEs have elevated serum levels of PBDEs, but these substances are also found in the general population and are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The calculations were based on exposure assessments of rubber workers (manufactured flame-retarded rubber compound) and electronics di...

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Some Studies and Comments on Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal T...

By: James R. Fouts, Ph. D.

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Much of what will he discussed in this paper can be referred to as drug metabolism, or drug-metabolizing systems and some factors which affect these systems, for example by causing enzyme induction. If such terms as drug metabolism and enzyme induction are not further defined and explained, many people will still know what I am talking about and refemng to. However, this sloppy language may needlessly restrict the interest and importance of some of the rese...

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Cadmium from Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge : Effects and Residue...

By: L. G. Hansen

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Municipal sewage sludge, the product of secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment. presents an increasingly burdensome disposal problem to sanitary districts of all sizes. Surface land disposal is an attractive alternative, but there are some potential hazards. Accumulation of toxic trace elements is the current primary concern and cadmium is the trace element receiving the most attention. Trace element composition of digested sewage sludges is highly dep...

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