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Plos Biology : Climate Change Could Change Rates of Evolution, Vol...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Generalized Reciprocity in Rats, Volume 5

By: Laurent Keller

Description : The evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives has been explained by direct, indirect, and strong reciprocity. Animals should base the decision to help others on expected future help, which they may judge from past behavior of their partner. Although many examples of cooperative behavior exist in nature where reciprocity may be involved, experimental evidence for strategies predicted by direct reciprocity models remains controversial: and indirect and stro...

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Plos Biology : Regulatory Hotspots in the Malaria Parasite Genome ...

By: Joseph M. Gonzales

Description : The determinants of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites remain elusive. The presence of a wellcharacterized gene expression cascade shared by different Plasmodium falciparum strains could imply that transcriptional regulation and its natural variation do not contribute significantly to the evolution of parasite drug resistance. To clarify the role of transcriptional variation as a source of stain-specific diversity in the most deadly malaria spe...

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Plos Biology : Functional Divergence Caused by Ancient Positive Se...

By: Mohamed Noor

Description : Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hyb...

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Plos Biology : Population Genomic Analysis of Strain Variation in ...

By: Sheri L. Simmons

Description : Deeply sampled community genomic (metagenomic) datasets enable comprehensive analysis of heterogeneity in natural microbial populations. In this study, we used sequence data obtained from the dominant member of a lowdiversity natural chemoautotrophic microbial community to determine how coexisting closely related individuals differ from each other in terms of gene sequence and gene content, and to uncover evidence of evolutionary processes that occur over s...

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Plos Biology : Hedgehog Signaling Acts with the Temporal Cascade t...

By: Matthew P. Scott

Description : In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series) acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this ‘‘temporal series’’ acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the poste...

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Plos Biology : a New Model for Open Sharing ; Massachusetts Instit...

By: Anne H. Margulies
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Plos Biology : Structural Insight Into the Rotational Switching Me...

By: Dennis Bray

Description : The bacterial flagellar motor can rotate either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW). Three flagellar proteins, FliG, FliM, and FliN, are required for rapid switching between the CWand CCW directions. Switching is achieved by a conformational change in FliG induced by the binding of a chemotaxis signaling protein, phospho-CheY, to FliM and FliN. FliG consists of three domains, FliGN, FliGM, and FliGC, and forms a ring on the cytoplasmic face of the MS r...

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Plos Biology : Genetic Deficiency of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3B C...

By: Katsuya Tanabe

Description : Despite treatment with agents that enhance b-cell function and insulin action, reduction in b-cell mass is relentless in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired signaling through the insulin/insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate/PI-3K/Akt pathway, leading to elevation of negatively regulated substrates such as glycogen synthase kinase-3b (Gsk-3b). When elevated, this enzyme has ant...

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Plos Biology : Open Engagement ; Exploring Public Participation in...

By: Claire Marris
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Plos Biology : Drosophila Neurotrophins Reveal a Common Mechanism ...

By: Bangfu Zhu

Description : Neurotrophic interactions occur in Drosophila, but to date, no neurotrophic factor had been found. Neurotrophins are the main vertebrate secreted signalling molecules that link nervous system structure and function : they regulate neuronal survival, targeting, synaptic plasticity, memory and cognition. We have identified a neurotrophic factor in flies, Drosophila Neurotrophin (DNT1), structurally related to all known neurotrophins and highly conserved in in...

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Plos Biology : the Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size Across...

By: Walter Jetz

Description : Traits such as clutch size vary markedly across species and environmental gradients but have usually been investigated from either a comparative or a geographic perspective, respectively. We analyzed the global variation in clutch size across 5,290 bird species, excluding brood parasites and pelagic species. We integrated intrinsic (morphological, behavioural), extrinsic (environmental), and phylogenetic effects in a combined model that predicts up to 68% o...

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Plos Biology : Current Affairs ; a Mutation’s-eye View of Voltage ...

By: Mary Hoff
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Plos Biology : Bacterial Solutions to the Problem of Sex, Volume 5

By: J. Arjan G. M. De Visser
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Plos Biology : Change for the Better ; Phosphoregulation of Protei...

By: William Mair
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Plos Biology : a New View of the Lethal Apoptotic Pore, Volume 10

By: Kohtaro Fujihashi

Description : Cell death by apoptosis is indispensable for proper development and tissue homeostasis in all multicellular organisms, and its deregulation plays a key role in cancer and many other diseases. A crucial event in apoptosis is the formation of protein-permeable pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane that release cytochrome c and other apoptosis-promoting factors into the cytosol. Research efforts over the past two decades have established that apoptotic por...

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Plos Biology : Synthesis of Very-long-chain Fatty Acids in the Epi...

By: Joanne Chory

Description : Plant organ growth is controlled by inter-cell-layer communication, which thus determines the overall size of the organism. The epidermal layer interfaces with the environment and participates in both driving and restricting growth via inter-celllayer communication. However, it remains unknown whether the epidermis can send signals to internal tissue to limit cell proliferation in determinate growth. Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are synthesized in t...

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Plos Biology : Skin-derived Tslp Triggers Progression from Epiderm...

By: Yong-jun Liu

Description : Asthma is a common allergic lung disease frequently affecting individuals with a prior history of eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD): however, the mechanism underlying the progression from AD to asthma (the so-called ‘‘atopic march’’) is unclear. Here we show that, like humans with AD, mice with skin-barrier defects develop AD-like skin inflammation and are susceptible to allergic asthma. Furthermore, we show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), overexpress...

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Plos Biology : Gene Regulatory Network Interactions in Sea Urchin ...

By: Nipam Patel

Description : A major goal of contemporary studies of embryonic development is to understand large sets of regulatory changes that accompany the phenomenon of embryonic induction. The highly resolved sea urchin pregastrular endomesoderm– gene regulatory network (EM-GRN) provides a unique framework to study the global regulatory interactions underlying endomesoderm induction. Vegetal micromeres of the sea urchin embryo constitute a classic endomesoderm signaling center, w...

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Plos Biology : Inhibition of Gap Junction Communication at Ectopic...

By: Marianne Bronner-fraser

Description : Mutations in X-linked ephrin-B1 in humans cause craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), a disease that affects female patients more severely than males. Sorting of ephrin-B1–positive and –negative cells following X-inactivation has been observed in ephrin-B1þ/ mice: however, the mechanisms by which mosaic ephrin-B1 expression leads to cell sorting and phenotypic defects remain unknown. Here we show that ephrin-B1þ/ mice exhibit calvarial defects, a phenotype aut...

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