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Plos Biology : Cryptochrome Mediates Light-dependent Magnetosensit...

By: Ueli Schibler

Description : Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving lightactivated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expre...

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Plos Biology : Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Exclusion in the Shark, ...

By: Karolina Malecek

Description : The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig) in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR) in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell: and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H) chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear: we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates pos...

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Plos Biology : in the Prostate, Volume 1

By: In the Prostate

Description : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs and by controlling protein production or causing RNA cleavage. To date, functions have been assigned to only a few of the hundreds of identified miRNAs, in part because of the difficulty in identifying their targets. The short length of miRNAs and the fact that their complementarity to target sequences is imperfect mean that target identification in ...

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Plos Biology : Quantitative Assessment of the Importance of Phenot...

By: Craig Moritz

Description : Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) br...

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Plos Biology : Chemokine Gpcr Signaling Inhibits B-catenin During ...

By: Hiroshi Hamada

Description : Embryonic axis formation in vertebrates is initiated by the establishment of the dorsal Nieuwkoop blastula organizer, marked by the nuclear accumulation of maternal b-catenin, a transcriptional effector of canonical Wnt signaling. Known regulators of axis specification include the canonical Wnt pathway components that positively or negatively affect bcatenin. An involvement of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) was hypothesized from experiments implicating...

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Plos Biology : Degradation of Yra1 Pre-mrna in the Cytoplasm Requi...

By: Marv Wickens

Description : Intron-containing pre-mRNAs are normally retained and processed in the nucleus but are sometimes exported to the cytoplasm and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway as a consequence of their inclusion of intronic in-frame termination codons. When shunted to the cytoplasm by autoregulated nuclear export, the introncontaining yeast YRA1 pre-mRNA evades NMD and is targeted by a cytoplasmic decay pathway mediated by the decapping activator ...

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Plos Biology : a Two-step Process Gets Mrna Loaded and Ready to Go...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Melanopsin Ganglion Cells ; a Different Way of Seei...

By: Caitlin Sedwick
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Plos Biology : Surviving Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress is Coupled t...

By: Marianne Bronner-fraser

Description : In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling (ERSS) protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs) during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence...

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Plos Biology : Selective Inflammatory Pain Insensitivity in the Af...

By: Thomas J. Park

Description : In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflamm...

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Plos Biology : Putting the Pieces Together ; Integrative Modeling ...

By: Keren Lasker
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Plos Biology : X Chromosome Inactivation During Drosophila Spermat...

By: Mohamed A. F. Noor

Description : Genes with male- and testis-enriched expression are under-represented on the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. There is also an excess of retrotransposed genes, many of which are expressed in testis, that have ‘‘escaped’’ the X chromosome and moved to the autosomes. It has been proposed that inactivation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis contributes to these patterns : genes with a beneficial function late in spermatogenesis should be selective...

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Plos Biology : the Implications of Multiple Circadian Clock Origin...

By: Michael Young
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Plos Biology : Active Rna Polymerases ; Mobile or Immobile Molecul...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : It is widely assumed that active RNA polymerases track along their templates to produce a transcript. We test this using chromosome conformation capture and human genes switched on rapidly and synchronously by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa): one is 221 kbp SAMD4A, which a polymerase takes more than 1 h to transcribe. Ten minutes after stimulation, the SAMD4A promoter comes together with other TNFa-responsive promoters. Subsequently, these contacts are ...

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Plos Biology : Institutional Open Access Funds ; Now is the Time, ...

By: Charles D. Eckman
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Plos Biology : Regulation of Early Adipose Commitment by Zfp521, V...

By: Mohamed A. F. Noor

Description : While there has been significant progress in determining the transcriptional cascade involved in terminal adipocyte differentiation, less is known about early events leading to lineage commitment and cell fate choice. It has been recently discovered that zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) is an early actor in adipose determination. Here, we show that a close paralog of Zfp423, Zfp521, acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation in vitro ...

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Plos Biology : Modernizing Reference Genome Assemblies, Volume 9

By: Valerie A. Schneider
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Plos Biology : Modular Organization and Combinatorial Energetics o...

By: Katherine E. Suel

Description : Proline–tyrosine nuclear localization signals (PY-NLSs) are recognized and transported into the nucleus by human Karyopherin (Kap) b2/Transportin and yeast Kap104p. Multipartite PY-NLSs are highly diverse in sequence and structure, share a common C-terminal R/H/KX2–5PY motif, and can be subdivided into hydrophobic and basic subclasses based on loose N-terminal sequence motifs. PY-NLS variability is consistent with weak consensus motifs, but such diversity p...

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Plos Biology : Two Distinct Mechanisms for Actin Capping Protein R...

By: Manfred Schliwa

Description : The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, thus playing a key role in actin-based lamellipodial dynamics. V-1 and CARMIL proteins directly bind to CP and inhibit the filament capping activity of CP. V-1 completely inhibits CP from interacting with the barbed end, whereas CARMIL proteins act on the barbed end-bound CP and facilitate its dissociation from the filament (called uncapping activity). Previous studies have r...

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Plos Biology : Cracking the Code of Oscillatory Activity, Volume 9

By: Manfred Fahle

Description : Neural oscillations are ubiquitous measurements of cognitive processes and dynamic routing and gating of information. The fundamental and so far unresolved problem for neuroscience remains to understand how oscillatory activity in the brain codes information for human cognition. In a biologically relevant cognitive task, we instructed six human observers to categorize facial expressions of emotion while we measured the observers’ EEG. We combined state-of-t...

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