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Plos Biology : Functional Heterogeneity of Embryonic Stem Cells Re...

By: Hiroshi Hamada

Description : ES cells are defined as self-renewing, pluripotent cell lines derived from early embryos. Cultures of ES cells are also characterized by the expression of certain markers thought to represent the pluripotent state. However, despite the widespread expression of key markers such as Oct4 and the appearance of a characteristic undifferentiated morphology, functional ES cells may represent only a small fraction of the cultures grown under self-renewing condition...

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Plos Biology : the Mahb, the Culture Gap, and Some Really Inconven...

By: Paul R. Ehrlich
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Plos Biology : Global Regulator Satb1 Recruits B-catenin and Regul...

By: Roel Nusse

Description : In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of b-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs) to activate target genes. Wnt/b -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with b-...

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Plos Biology : Resolving the Fast Kinetics of Cooperative Binding ...

By: Richard W Aldrich

Description : Cooperativity is one of the most important properties of molecular interactions in biological systems. It is the ability to influence ligand binding at one site of a macromolecule by previous ligand binding at another site of the same molecule. As a consequence, the affinity of the macromolecule for the ligand is either decreased (negative cooperativity) or increased (positive cooperativity). Over the last 100 years, O2 binding to hemoglobin has served as t...

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Plos Biology : Considering the First Steps Toward a Stable and Ord...

By: Karen Otto
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Plos Biology : Neuro Nonsense, Volume 8

By: Ben A. Barres
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Plos Biology : Reawakening Retrocyclins ; Ancestral Human Defensin...

By: Michael Emerman

Description : Human alpha and beta defensins contribute substantially to innate immune defenses against microbial and viral infections. Certain nonhuman primates also produce theta-defensins—18 residue cyclic peptides that act as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Multiple human theta-defensin genes exist, but they harbor a premature termination codon that blocks translation. Consequently, the theta-defensins (retrocyclins) encoded within the human genome are not expressed as pepti...

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Plos Biology : the Hilda Complex Coordinates a Conditional Switch ...

By: Paul Anderson

Description : Cell regulatory circuits integrate diverse, and sometimes conflicting, environmental cues to generate appropriate, conditiondependent responses. Here, we elucidate the components and mechanisms driving a protein-directed RNA switch in the 39UTR of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. We describe a novel HILDA (hypoxia-inducible hnRNP L–DRBP76– hnRNP A2/B1) complex that coordinates a three-element RNA switch, enabling VEGFA mRNA translation during co...

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Plos Biology : Polycomb Group Genes ; Keeping Stem Cell Activity i...

By: Martin Sauvageau
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Plos Biology : Does Medicine Without Evolution Make Sense, Volume 5

By: Catriona J. MacCallum
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Plos Biology : What Do Human Parasites Do with a Chloroplast Anywa...

By: Boris Striepen
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Plos Biology : a New View of the Waggle Dance ; Making Scents to R...

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : ‘‘interactive Technology Assessment’’ and Beyond ; ...

By: Nikolas Rose
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Plos Biology : a New View of the Lethal Apoptotic Pore, Volume 10

By: Kohtaro Fujihashi

Description : Cell death by apoptosis is indispensable for proper development and tissue homeostasis in all multicellular organisms, and its deregulation plays a key role in cancer and many other diseases. A crucial event in apoptosis is the formation of protein-permeable pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane that release cytochrome c and other apoptosis-promoting factors into the cytosol. Research efforts over the past two decades have established that apoptotic por...

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Plos Biology : Parasite’s Double Play Helps Evade Mouse Immune Res...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : the Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Asse...

By: David M. Glover

Description : CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meio...

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Plos Biology : Biogeomancer ; Automated Georeferencing to Map the ...

By: Robert P. Guralnick
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Plos Biology : Sorcerer II ; the Search for Microbial Diversity Ro...

By: Henry Nicholls
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Plos Biology : Hamp Domain Conformers That Propagate Opposite Sign...

By: Frederick Hughson

Description : HAMP domains are signal relay modules in .26,000 receptors of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea that mediate processes involved in chemotaxis, pathogenesis, and biofilm formation. We identify two HAMP conformations distinguished by a fourto two-helix packing transition at the C-termini that send opposing signals in bacterial chemoreceptors. Crystal structures of signal-locked mutants establish the observed structure-to-function relationships. Pulsed dipolar...

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Plos Biology : the Desensitization Gating of the Mthk Kþ Channel i...

By: Mario Meng-chiang Kuo

Description : The RCK-containing MthK channel undergoes two inactivation processes : activation-coupled desensitization and acidinduced inactivation. The acid inactivation is mediated by the C-terminal RCK domain assembly. Here, we report that the desensitization gating is governed by a desensitization domain (DD) of the cytoplasmic N-terminal 17 residues. Deletion of DD completely removes the desensitization, and the process can be fully restored by a synthetic DD pepti...

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