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Plos Biology : Dorsoventral Patterning of the Mouse Coat by Tbx15,...

By: Brigid L. M. Hogan

Description : Many members of the animal kingdom display coat or skin color differences along their dorsoventral axis. To determine the mechanisms that control regional differences in pigmentation, we have studied how a classical mouse mutation, droopy ear (deH), affects dorsoventral skin characteristics, especially those under control of the Agouti gene. Mice carrying the Agouti allele black-and-tan (at) normally have a sharp boundary between dorsal black hair and yello...

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Plos Biology : Postmitotic Specification of Drosophila Insulinergi...

By: Irene Miguel-aliaga

Description : Insulin and related peptides play important and conserved functions in growth and metabolism. Although Drosophila has proved useful for the genetic analysis of insulin functions, little is known about the transcription factors and cell lineages involved in insulin production. Within the embryonic central nervous system, the MP2 neuroblast divides once to generate a dMP2 neuron that initially functions as a pioneer, guiding the axons of other later-born embr...

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Plos Biology : Stochastic Cytokine Expression Induces Mixed T Help...

By: Avinash Bhandoola

Description : During eukaryotic development, the induction of a lineage-specific transcription factor typically drives differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells, while repressing that of alternative lineages. This process is often mediated by some extracellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines that can bind to cell surface receptors, leading to activation and/or repression of transcription factors. We explored the early differentiation of naive CD4 T helper (...

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Plos Biology : Paradoxes of Difference, Volume 2

By: Lee Sandra Soo-jin
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Plos Biology : Segregation of Odor Identity and Intensity During O...

By: Barry Dickson

Description : Molecular and cellular studies have begun to unravel a neurobiological basis of olfactory processing, which appears conserved among vertebrate and invertebrate species. Studies have shown clearly that experience-dependent coding of odor identity occurs in ‘‘associative’’ olfactory centers (the piriform cortex in mammals and the mushroom body [MB] in insects). What remains unclear, however, is whether associative centers also mediate innate (spontaneous) odo...

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Plos Biology : Food-web Models Predict Species Abundances in Respo...

By: Robert Holt

Description : Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple ...

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Plos Biology : Who Needs Sex or Males Anyway, Volume 5

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : Shifting Baselines, Local Impacts, and Global Chang...

By: Nancy Knowlton
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Plos Biology : the Functional Microarchitecture of the Mouse Barre...

By: Daniel Feldman

Description : Cortical maps, consisting of orderly arrangements of functional columns, are a hallmark of the organization of the cerebral cortex. However, the microorganization of cortical maps at the level of single neurons is not known, mainly because of the limitations of available mapping techniques. Here, we used bulk loading of Ca2þ indicators combined with two-photon microscopy to image the activity of multiple single neurons in layer (L) 2/3 of the mouse barrel c...

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Plos Biology : a Signaling Pathway Involving Tgf-β2 and Snail in H...

By: Brigid L.M. Hogan

Description : In a common theme of organogenesis, certain cells within a multipotent epithelial sheet exchange signals with their neighbors and develop into a bud structure. Using hair bud morphogenesis as a paradigm, we employed mutant mouse models and cultured keratinocytes to dissect the contributions of multiple extracellular cues in orchestrating adhesion dynamics and proliferation to shape the cluster of cells involved. We found that transforming growth factor b2 s...

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Plos Biology : Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted ...

By: Georgina M. MacE

Description : Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudoreplication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradient...

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Plos Biology : Aphid Thermal Tolerance is Governed by a Point Muta...

By: Charles Godfray

Description : Symbiosis is a ubiquitous phenomenon generating biological complexity, affecting adaptation, and expanding ecological capabilities. However, symbionts, which can be subject to genetic limitations such as clonality and genomic degradation, also impose constraints on hosts. A model of obligate symbiosis is that between aphids and the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola, which supplies essential nutrients. We report a mutation in Buchnera of the aphid Acyrthosiphon ...

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Plos Biology : Inferring the Dynamics of Diversification ; a Coale...

By: Paul H. Harvey

Description : Recent analyses of the fossil record and molecular phylogenies suggest that there are fundamental limits to biodiversity, possibly arising from constraints in the availability of space, resources, or ecological niches. Under this hypothesis, speciation rates decay over time and biodiversity eventually saturates, with new species emerging only when others are driven to extinction. This view of macro-evolution contradicts an alternative hypothesis that biodiv...

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Plos Biology : Dysregulation of the Norepinephrine Transporter Sus...

By: Eric Nestler

Description : The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) is a multimeric signaling unit that phosphorylates protein kinase B/Akt following hormonal and growth factor stimulation. Defective Akt phosphorylation at the mTORC2-catalyzed Ser473 site has been linked to schizophrenia. While human imaging and animal studies implicate a fundamental role for Akt signaling in prefrontal dopaminergic networks, the molecular mechanisms linking Akt phosphorylation to ...

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Plos Biology : Candidate Gene Association Study in Type 2 Diabetes...

By: Philippe Froguel

Description : Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common, serious metabolic disorder with a substantial inherited component. It is characterised by defects in both insulin secretion and action. Progress in identification of specific genetic variants predisposing to the disease has been limited. To complement ongoing positional cloning efforts, we have undertaken a large-scale candidate gene association study. We examined 152 SNPs in 71 candidate genes for association with...

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Plos Biology : Molecular Requirements for Peroxisomal Targeting of...

By: Frederick Hughson

Description : Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme, of which various missense mutations lead to irreversible kidney damage via primary hyperoxaluria type 1, in part caused by improper peroxisomal targeting. To unravel the molecular mechanism of its recognition by the peroxisomal receptor Pex5p, we have determined the crystal structure of the respective cargo–receptor complex. It shows an extensive protein/protein interface, with contributions from ...

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Plos Biology : Secreted Bacterial Effectors and Host-produced Eige...

By: Shizuo Akira

Description : Death by infection is often as much due to the host’s reaction as it is to the direct result of microbial action. Here we identify genes in both the host and microbe that are involved in the pathogenesis of infection and disease in Drosophila melanogaster challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium). We demonstrate that wild-type S. typhimurium causes a lethal systemic infection when injected into the hemocoel of D. melanogaster....

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Plos Biology : Foxp1 and Lhx1 Coordinate Motor Neuron Migration wi...

By: Franck Polleux

Description : Topographic neuronal maps arise as a consequence of axon trajectory choice correlated with the localisation of neuronal soma, but the identity of the pathways coordinating these processes is unknown. We addressed this question in the context of the myotopic map formed by limb muscles innervated by spinal lateral motor column (LMC) motor axons where the Eph receptor signals specifying growth cone trajectory are restricted by Foxp1 and Lhx1 transcription fact...

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Plos Biology : Chemokine Gpcr Signaling Inhibits B-catenin During ...

By: Hiroshi Hamada

Description : Embryonic axis formation in vertebrates is initiated by the establishment of the dorsal Nieuwkoop blastula organizer, marked by the nuclear accumulation of maternal b-catenin, a transcriptional effector of canonical Wnt signaling. Known regulators of axis specification include the canonical Wnt pathway components that positively or negatively affect bcatenin. An involvement of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) was hypothesized from experiments implicating...

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Plos Biology : How Mammals Acquire and Distribute Iron Needed for ...

By: Tracey A. Rouault
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