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Plos Biology : Neuronal Migration and Ventral Subtype Identity in ...

By: Thomas M. Jessell

Description : Little is known about the molecular mechanisms and intrinsic factors that are responsible for the emergence of neuronal subtype identity. Several transcription factors that are expressed mainly in precursors of the ventral telencephalon have been shown to control neuronal specification, but it has been unclear whether subtype identity is also specified in these precursors, or if this happens in postmitotic neurons, and whether it involves the same or differ...

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Plos Biology : Novel Technique Shows when the Fertilized Egg’s Gen...

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : Natural Selection Molds Genomic Insulator Elements,...

By: Peter Walter
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Plos Biology : How Much Lox is a Grizzly Bear Worth, Volume 10

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : the European Research Council— a European Renaissan...

By: Bill O’neill
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Plos Biology : T Cell Receptor-independent Basal Signaling Via Erk...

By: Philippa Marrack

Description : Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T lymphocytes. Here we describe a basal signal that controls gene expression profiles in the Jurkat T cell lin...

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Plos Biology : Transcriptional Corepressors Hipk1 and Hipk2 Contro...

By: Brigid L. M. Hogan

Description : Several critical events dictate the successful establishment of nascent vasculature in yolk sac and in the developing embryos. These include aggregation of angioblasts to form the primitive vascular plexus, followed by the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and coalescence of endothelial cells. Although transforming growth factor–b (TGF-b) is known to regulate various aspects of vascular development, the signaling mechanism of TGF-b remains unclear....

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Plos Biology : High-resolution Mutation Mapping Reveals Parallel E...

By: Kenneth Wolfe

Description : Understanding the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptation is limited by our ability to efficiently identify the genomic locations of adaptive mutations. Here we describe a method that can quickly and precisely map the genetic basis of naturally and experimentally evolved complex traits using linkage analysis. A yeast strain that expresses the evolved trait is crossed to a distinct strain background and DNA from a large pool of progeny that express the trai...

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Plos Biology : Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites o...

By: Emily R. Troemel

Description : For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Her...

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Plos Biology : Accelerated Adaptive Evolution on a Newly Formed X ...

By: Laurence D. Hurst

Description : Sex chromosomes originated from ordinary autosomes, and their evolution is characterized by continuous gene loss from the ancestral Y chromosome. Here, we document a new feature of sex chromosome evolution : bursts of adaptive fixations on a newly formed X chromosome. Taking advantage of the recently formed neo-X chromosome of Drosophila miranda, we compare patterns of DNA sequence variation at genes located on the neo-X to genes on the ancestral X chromoso...

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Plos Biology : in the Prostate, Volume 1

By: In the Prostate

Description : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs and by controlling protein production or causing RNA cleavage. To date, functions have been assigned to only a few of the hundreds of identified miRNAs, in part because of the difficulty in identifying their targets. The short length of miRNAs and the fact that their complementarity to target sequences is imperfect mean that target identification in ...

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Plos Biology : Emergence of Noise-induced Oscillations in the Cent...

By: Emmanuel Mignot

Description : Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication...

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Plos Biology : the Cell Cycle–regulated Genes of Schizosaccharomyc...

By: Paul T. Spellman

Description : Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 gene...

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Plos Biology : Pick1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenes...

By: Antonio J. Vidal-puig

Description : Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of s...

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Plos Biology : Snw1 is a Critical Regulator of Spatial Bmp Activit...

By: Derek L. Stemple

Description : Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gradients provide positional information to direct cell fate specification, such as patterning of the vertebrate ectoderm into neural, neural crest, and epidermal tissues, with precise borders segregating these domains. However, little is known about how BMP activity is regulated spatially and temporally during vertebrate development to contribute to embryonic patterning, and more specifically to neural crest formation. Thro...

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Plos Biology : Visual Tuning May Boost African Cichlid Diversity, ...

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : Regulation of Nucleotide Excision Repair by Uv-ddb ...

By: Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers

Description : How tightly packed chromatin is thoroughly inspected for DNA damage is one of the fundamental unanswered questions in biology. In particular, the effective excision of carcinogenic lesions caused by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of sunlight depends on UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB), but the mechanism by which this DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer stimulates DNA repair remained enigmatic. We hypothesized that a distinctive function of this unique sensor is to...

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Plos Biology : the Neural Cascade of Attentional Control, Volume 5

By: Janelle Weaver
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Plos Biology : Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy to R...

By: Kristen M. Harris

Description : Three-dimensional (3D) structural information on many length scales is of central importance in biological research. Excellent methods exist to obtain structures of molecules at atomic, organelles at electron microscopic, and tissue at light-microscopic resolution. A gap exists, however, when 3D tissue structure needs to be reconstructed over hundreds of micrometers with a resolution sufficient to follow the thinnest cellular processes and to identify small...

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Plos Biology : Ultradeep Sequencing of a Human Ultraconserved Regi...

By: Nicholas Hastie

Description : Early detection of cancer-associated genomic instability is crucial, particularly in tumour types in which this instability represents the essential underlying mechanism of tumourigenesis. Currently used methods require the presence of already established neoplastic cells because they only detect clonal mutations. In principle, parallel sequencing of single DNA filaments could reveal the early phases of tumour initiation by detecting low-frequency mutations...

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