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Plos Biology : Impaired Antibody Response Causes Persistence of Pr...

By: Sarah Rowland-jones

Description : CD8 T cells are recognized key players in control of persistent virus infections, but increasing evidence suggests that assistance from other immune mediators is also needed. Here, we investigated whether specific antibody responses contribute to control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a prototypic mouse model of systemic persistent infection. Mice expressing transgenic B cell receptors of LCMV-unrelated specificity, and mice unable to produce...

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Plos Biology : Graduate Students Take to the Field in K–12 Educati...

By: Betsy J. Mitchell
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Plos Biology : Secreted Bacterial Effectors and Host-produced Eige...

By: Shizuo Akira

Description : Death by infection is often as much due to the host’s reaction as it is to the direct result of microbial action. Here we identify genes in both the host and microbe that are involved in the pathogenesis of infection and disease in Drosophila melanogaster challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium). We demonstrate that wild-type S. typhimurium causes a lethal systemic infection when injected into the hemocoel of D. melanogaster....

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Plos Biology : Genome-wide Mapping of the Cohesin Complex in the Y...

By: Bruce Stillman

Description : In eukaryotic cells, cohesin holds sister chromatids together until they separate into daughter cells during mitosis. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP chip) to produce a genome-wide description of cohesin binding to meiotic and mitotic chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A computer program, PeakFinder, enables flexible, automated identification and annotation of cohesin binding peaks in ChIP chip data. C...

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Plos Biology : Dual Host-virus Arms Races Shape an Essential House...

By: Bill Sugden

Description : Transferrin Receptor (TfR1) is the cell-surface receptor that regulates iron uptake into cells, a process that is fundamental to life. However, TfR1 also facilitates the cellular entry of multiple mammalian viruses. We use evolutionary and functional analyses of TfR1 in the rodent clade, where two families of viruses bind this receptor, to mechanistically dissect how essential housekeeping genes like TFR1 successfully balance the opposing selective pressure...

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Plos Biology : Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics Across th...

By: Jayna L. Ditty
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Plos Biology : Enzymatic Blockade of the Ubiquitin-proteasome Path...

By: Jonathan D Ashwell

Description : Ubiquitin-dependent processes control much of cellular physiology. We show that expression of a highly active, Epstein-Barr virus-derived deubiquitylating enzyme (EBV-DUB) blocks proteasomal degradation of cytosolic and ER-derived proteins by preemptive removal of ubiquitin from proteasome substrates, a treatment less toxic than the use of proteasome inhibitors. Recognition of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, their dislocation to the cytosol, and degrada...

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Plos Biology : a C-di-gmp Effector System Controls Cell Adhesion B...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : In Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 the availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an environmental signal that controls biofilm formation through a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling pathway. In low Pi conditions, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) RapA is expressed, depleting cellular c-di-GMP and causing the loss of a critical outer-membrane adhesin LapA from the cell surface. This response involves an inner membrane protein LapD, which binds c-di-GMP...

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Plos Biology : Fatty Acid Desaturation Links Germ Cell Loss to Lon...

By: Marc Tatar

Description : Background : Preventing germline stem cell proliferation extends lifespan in nematodes and flies. So far, studies on germline-longevity signaling have focused on daf-16/FOXO and daf-12/VDR. Here, we report on NHR-80/HNF4, a nuclear receptor that specifically mediates longevity induced by depletion of the germ line through a mechanism that implicates fatty acid monodesaturation. Methods and Findings : nhr-80/HNF4 is induced in animals lacking a germ line and...

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Plos Biology : Crag is a Gef for Rab11 Required for Rhodopsin Traf...

By: David M. Glover

Description : Rhodopsins (Rhs) are light sensors, and Rh1 is the major Rh in the Drosophila photoreceptor rhabdomere membrane. Upon photoactivation, a fraction of Rh1 is internalized and degraded, but it remains unclear how the rhabdomeric Rh1 pool is replenished and what molecular players are involved. Here, we show that Crag, a DENN protein, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab11 that is required for the homeostasis of Rh1 upon light exposure. The absence of...

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Plos Biology : Revealing the Poliovirus’s Path to Infection, Volume 5

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : Temporal Production Signals in Parietal Cortex, Vol...

By: Bassem A. Hassan

Description : We often perform movements and actions on the basis of internal motivations and without any explicit instructions or cues. One common example of such behaviors is our ability to initiate movements solely on the basis of an internally generated sense of the passage of time. In order to isolate the neuronal signals responsible for such timed behaviors, we devised a task that requires nonhuman primates to move their eyes consistently at regular time intervals ...

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Plos Biology : Functional Adaptation of a Plant Receptor-kinase Pa...

By: Katharina Markmann

Description : Nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) occur in two major forms—Actinorhiza and legume-rhizobium symbiosis—which differ in bacterial partner, intracellular infection pattern, and morphogenesis. The phylogenetic restriction of nodulation to eurosid angiosperms indicates a common and recent evolutionary invention, but the molecular steps involved are still obscure. In legumes, at least seven genes—including the symbiosis receptor-kinase gene SYMRK—are es...

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Plos Biology : Virions at the Gates ; Receptors and the Host–virus...

By: John M. Coffin

Description : All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus–receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some wellstudied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor’s normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection ...

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Plos Biology : Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphoryl...

By: Robert B.Bourret

Description : Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we presen...

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Plos Biology : Mitochondrial Cell Death Control in Familial Parkin...

By: Guido Kroemer
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Plos Biology : Alignment Between Pin1 Polarity and Microtubule Ori...

By: Ottoline Leyser

Description : Morphogenesis during multicellular development is regulated by intercellular signaling molecules as well as by the mechanical properties of individual cells. In particular, normal patterns of organogenesis in plants require coordination between growth direction and growth magnitude. How this is achieved remains unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, auxin patterning and cellular growth are linked through a correlated pattern of auxin efflux car...

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Plos Biology : University of California Research Seminar Network ;...

By: James R. Carey
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Plos Biology : the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition ; ...

By: Sean Eddy

Description : Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995...

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Plos Biology : Spinal Cord Injury Reveals Multilineage Differentia...

By: Konstantinos Meletis

Description : Spinal cord injury often results in permanent functional impairment. Neural stem cells present in the adult spinal cord can be expanded in vitro and improve recovery when transplanted to the injured spinal cord, demonstrating the presence of cells that can promote regeneration but that normally fail to do so efficiently. Using genetic fate mapping, we show that close to all in vitro neural stem cell potential in the adult spinal cord resides within the popu...

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