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Plos Biology : “it’s Ok, We’re Not Cousins by Blood” ; the Cousin ...

By: Diane B. Paul
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Plos Biology : a Bacterial Ras-like Small Gtp-binding Protein and ...

By: Michael T. Laub

Description : Regulated cell polarity is central to many cellular processes. We investigated the mechanisms that govern the rapid switching of cell polarity (reversals) during motility of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Cellular reversals are mediated by pole-to-pole oscillations of motility proteins and the frequency of the oscillations is under the control of the Frz chemosensory system. However, the molecular mechanism that creates dynamic polarity remained to be ch...

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Plos Biology : Synthesis of Very-long-chain Fatty Acids in the Epi...

By: Joanne Chory

Description : Plant organ growth is controlled by inter-cell-layer communication, which thus determines the overall size of the organism. The epidermal layer interfaces with the environment and participates in both driving and restricting growth via inter-celllayer communication. However, it remains unknown whether the epidermis can send signals to internal tissue to limit cell proliferation in determinate growth. Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are synthesized in t...

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Plos Biology : Abl is Able to Inhibit Cell Engulfment, Volume 7

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Emil Wolfgang Menzel, Jr. 1929–2012 ; Chimpanzee Re...

By: Arthur Caplan
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Plos Biology : Yeast Prions ; Protein Aggregation is Not Enough, V...

By: Michael Y. Sherman
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Plos Biology : Mutualistic Interactions Drive Ecological Niche Con...

By: Marianne Elias

Description : Ecological communities are structured in part by evolutionary interactions among their members. A number of recent studies incorporating phylogenetics into community ecology have upheld the paradigm that competition drives ecological divergence among species of the same guild. However, the role of other interspecific interactions, in particular positive interactions such as mutualism, remains poorly explored. We characterized the ecological niche and inferr...

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Plos Biology : Self-renewal of Single Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cel...

By: Margaret A. Good Ell

Description : Recent descriptions of significant heterogeneity in normal stem cells and cancers have altered our understanding of tumor genesis, emphasizing the need to understand how single stem cells are subverted to cause tumors. Human myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are thought to reflect transformation of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the majority harbor an acquired V617F mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase, making them a paradigm for studying the early s...

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Plos Biology : Sequestration of the Ab Peptide Prevents Toxicity a...

By: Ming Guo

Description : Protein aggregation, arising from the failure of the cell to regulate the synthesis or degradation of aggregation-prone proteins, underlies many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the balance between the synthesis, clearance, and assembly of misfolded proteins into neurotoxic aggregates remains poorly understood. Here we study the effects of modulating this balance for the amyloid-beta (Ab) peptide by using a small engineered binding protein (ZAb3) that ...

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Plos Biology : Motifs in Brain Networks, Volume 2

By: Karl J. Friston

Description : Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the d...

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Plos Biology : Msn2 and Msn4 Link Calorie Restriction and Tor to S...

By: Andy Dillin

Description : Calorie restriction (CR) robustly extends the lifespan of numerous species. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CR has been proposed to extend lifespan by boosting the activity of sirtuin deacetylases, thereby suppressing the formation of toxic repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) circles. An alternative theory is that CR works by suppressing the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, which extends lifespan via mechanisms that are unknown but thought to...

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Plos Biology : Fog-2 and the Evolution of Self-fertile Hermaphrodi...

By: Barbara Meyer

Description : Somatic and germline sex determination pathways have diverged significantly in animals, making comparisons between taxa difficult. To overcome this difficulty, we compared the genes in the germline sex determination pathways of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, two Caenorhabditis species with similar reproductive systems and sequenced genomes. We demonstrate that C. briggsae has orthologs of all known C. elegans sex determination genes with one except...

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Plos Biology : Crystal Structure of a Yeast Aquaporin at 1.15 Å Re...

By: Gregory A. Petsko

Description : Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that facilitate the flow of water through cellular membranes. An unusual characteristic of yeast aquaporins is that they frequently contain an extended N terminus of unknown function. Here we present the X-ray structure of the yeast aquaporin Aqy1 from Pichia pastoris at 1.15 A° resolution. Our crystal structure reveals that the water channel is closed by the N terminus, which arranges as a tightly wound helical bundle,...

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Plos Biology : Dj-1 is a Redox-dependent Molecular Chaperone That ...

By: Huda Y. Zoghbi

Description : Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons (DNs) ultimately leading to a progressive movement disorder in patients. The etiology of DN loss in sporadic PD is unknown, although it is hypothesized that aberrant protein aggregation and cellular oxidative stress may promote DN degeneration. Homozygous mutations in DJ-1 were recently described in two families with autosomal recessive inherited PD (Bonifat...

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Plos Biology : Bacterial Stress Responses ; What Doesn’t Kill Them...

By: Kathryn J. Boor
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Plos Biology : Evolution of Melanopsin Photoreceptors ; Discovery ...

By: Jeremy Nathans

Description : In mammals, the melanopsin gene (Opn4) encodes a sensory photopigment that underpins newly discovered inner retinal photoreceptors. Since its first discovery in Xenopus laevis and subsequent description in humans and mice, melanopsin genes have been described in all vertebrate classes. Until now, all of these sequences have been considered representatives of a single orthologous gene (albeit with duplications in the teleost fish). Here, we describe the disc...

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Plos Biology : State-dependent Decisions Cause Apparent Violations...

By: Andre´ A. Dhondt

Description : Normative models of choice in economics and biology usually expect preferences to be consistent across contexts, or ‘‘rational’’ in economic language. Following a large body of literature reporting economically irrational behaviour in humans, breaches of rationality by animals have also been recently described. If proven systematic, these findings would challenge long-standing biological approaches to behavioural theorising, and suggest that cognitive proce...

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Plos Biology : a Cytoplasmic Complex Mediates Specific Mrna Recogn...

By: Simon Bullock

Description : In eukaryotes, hundreds of mRNAs are localized by specialized transport complexes. For localization, transcripts are recognized by RNA-binding proteins and incorporated into motor-containing messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). To date, the molecular assembly of such mRNPs is not well understood and most details on cargo specificity remain unresolved. We used ASH1-mRNA transport in yeast to provide a first assessment of where and how localizing mR...

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Plos Biology : an Apkc-exocyst Complex Controls Paxillin Phosphory...

By: Kenneth M. Yamada

Description : Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been implicated in cell polarisation and migration through association with Cdc42 and Par6. In distinct migratory models, the Exocyst complex has been shown to be involved in secretory events and migration. By RNA interference (RNAi) we show that the polarised delivery of the Exocyst to the leading edge of migrating NRK cells is dependent upon aPKCs. Reciprocally we demonstrate that aPKC localisation at the lea...

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Plos Biology : Immune Activation and Cd8Þ T-cell Differentiation T...

By: Philippa Marrack

Description : Progress in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic is hindered by our failure to elucidate the precise reasons for the onset of immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that elevated immune activation is associated with poor outcome in HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Through ex vivo analysis of virus-specific CD8þ T-cells and the use of an in vitro model of naı¨ve CD8þ T-cell priming, we ...

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