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Plos Biology : Both Barriers and Trait Complementarity Govern Poll...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Discovery-based Science Education ; Functional Geno...

By: Jiong Chen
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Plos Biology : Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers Panth...

By: Craig Moritz

Description : Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris), of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species’ evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution rang...

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Plos Biology : Finding the Right Plugin ; Mosquitoes Have the Answ...

By: Tracey Chapman
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Plos Biology : Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation Be...

By: Mohamed A. F. Noor

Description : Gene flow between populations that are adapting to distinct environments may be restricted if hybrids inherit maladaptive, intermediate phenotypes. This phenomenon, called extrinsic postzygotic isolation (EPI), is thought to play a critical role in the early stages of speciation. However, despite its intuitive appeal, we know surprisingly little about the strength and prevalence of EPI in nature, and even less about the specific phenotypes that tend to caus...

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Plos Biology : Calcium Dynamics of Cortical Astrocytic Networks in...

By: Winfred Denk

Description : Large and long-lasting cytosolic calcium surges in astrocytes have been described in cultured cells and acute slice preparations. The mechanisms that give rise to these calcium events have been extensively studied in vitro. However, their existence and functions in the intact brain are unknown. We have topically applied Fluo-4 AM on the cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats, and imaged cytosolic calcium fluctuation in astrocyte populations of superficial cor...

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Plos Biology : Barcoding Life’s Matrix ; Translating Biodiversity ...

By: Linda Santschi
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Plos Biology : Loss of Egg Yolk Genes in Mammals and the Origin of...

By: David Brawand

Description : Embryonic development in nonmammalian vertebrates depends entirely on nutritional reserves that are predominantly derived from vitellogenin proteins and stored in egg yolk. Mammals have evolved new resources, such as lactation and placentation, to nourish their developing and early offspring. However, the evolutionary timing and molecular events associated with this major phenotypic transition are not known. By means of sensitive comparative genomics analys...

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Plos Biology : Creatine Kinase–mediated Atp Supply Fuels Actin-bas...

By: Jan W. P. Kuiper

Description : Phagocytosis requires locally coordinated cytoskeletal rearrangements driven by actin polymerization and myosin motor activity. How this actomyosin dynamics is dependent upon systems that provide access to ATP at phagosome microdomains has not been determined. We analyzed the role of brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B), an enzyme involved in high-energy phosphoryl transfer. We demonstrate that endogenous CK-B in macrophages is mobilized from the cytosolic poo...

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Plos Biology : Co-evolution of Transcriptional Silencing Proteins ...

By: Edward J. Louis

Description : Co-evolution of transcriptional regulatory proteins and their sites of action has been often hypothesized but rarely demonstrated. Here we provide experimental evidence of such co-evolution in yeast silent chromatin, a finding that emerged from studies of hybrids formed between two closely related Saccharomyces species. A unidirectional silencing incompatibility between S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus led to a key discovery : asymmetrical complementation of di...

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Plos Biology : a Simple Feedback Resistor Switch Keeps Latent Hiv ...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : the Soup in My Fly ; Evolution, Form and Function o...

By: Tracey Chapman
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Plos Biology : Topological Reorganization of Odor Representations ...

By: Mike Shipley

Description : Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB) by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract infor...

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Plos Biology : Structural Mechanism of Er Retrieval of Mhc Class I...

By: Achim Kramer

Description : One of the hallmarks of viral immune evasion is the capacity to disrupt major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) antigen presentation to evade T-cell detection. Cowpox virus encoded protein CPXV203 blocks MHCI surface expression by exploiting the KDEL-receptor recycling pathway, and here we show that CPXV203 directly binds a wide array of fully assembled MHCI proteins, both classical and non-classical. Further, the stability of CPXV203/MHCI complexes...

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Plos Biology : a Tale of Two Biofilms, Volume 9

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Hyphal Development in Candida Albicans Requires Two...

By: Joseph Heitman

Description : Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. For Candida albicans, the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans, morphological plasticity is its defining feature and is critical for its pathogenesis. Unlike other fungal pathogens that exist primarily in either yeast or hyphal forms, C. albicans is able to switch reversibly between yeast and hyphal growth forms in response to environmental cues. Although many regulators have been found in...

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Plos Biology : Clarifying the Mechanism of Superantigen Toxicity, ...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Model Selection and the Molecular Clock, Volume 4

By: Oliver G. Pybus
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Plos Biology : Base Excision by Thymine Dna Glycosylase Mediates D...

By: James E. Haber

Description : 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in cancer treatment, imbalances nucleotide pools, thereby favoring misincorporation of uracil and 5-FU into genomic DNA. The processing of these bases by DNA repair activities was proposed to cause DNA-directed cytotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms have not been resolved. In this study, we investigated a possible role of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), one of four mammalian uracil DNA glycosy...

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Plos Biology : Understanding the Evolutionary Fate of Finite Popul...

By: Nick H. Barton

Description : The most consistent result in more than two decades of experimental evolution is that the fitness of populations adapting to a constant environment does not increase indefinitely, but reaches a plateau. Using experimental evolution with bacteriophage, we show here that the converse is also true. In populations small enough such that drift overwhelms selection and causes fitness to decrease, fitness declines down to a plateau. We demonstrate theoretically th...

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