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Plos Biology : Learning to Control a Brain–machine Interface for R...

By: Idan Segev

Description : Reaching and grasping in primates depend on the coordination of neural activity in large frontoparietal ensembles. Here we demonstrate that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain–machine interface (BMIc) that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters (i.e., hand position, velocity, gripping force, and the EMGs of multiple arm muscles) from the electrical activi...

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Plos Biology : a Modular Library of Small Molecule Signals Regulat...

By: Piali Sengupta

Description : The nematode C. elegans is an important model for the study of social behaviors. Recent investigations have shown that a family of small molecule signals, the ascarosides, controls population density sensing and mating behavior. However, despite extensive studies of C. elegans aggregation behaviors, no intraspecific signals promoting attraction or aggregation of wild-type hermaphrodites have been identified. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that the ...

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Plos Biology : Development of Axon-target Specificity of Ponto- Ce...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : The function of neuronal networks relies on selective assembly of synaptic connections during development. We examined how synaptic specificity emerges in the pontocerebellar projection. Analysis of axon-target interactions with correlated light-electron microscopy revealed that developing pontine mossy fibers elaborate extensive cell-cell contacts and synaptic connections with Purkinje cells, an inappropriate target. Subsequently, mossy fiber–Purkinje cell...

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Plos Biology : Monotonic Coding of Numerosity in MacAque Lateral I...

By: Stanislas Dehaene

Description : As any child knows, the first step in counting is summing up individual elements, yet the brain mechanisms responsible for this process remain obscure. Here we show, for the first time, that a population of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area of monkeys encodes the total number of elements within their classical receptive fields in a graded fashion, across a wide range of numerical values (2–32). Moreover, modulation of neuronal activity by visual qua...

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Plos Biology : a Force-activated Trip Switch Triggers Rapid Dissoc...

By: Wendy E. Thomas

Description : Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (Kd

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Plos Biology : Haemodynamics-driven Developmental Pruning of Brain...

By: Chaitan Khosla

Description : The brain blood vasculature consists of a highly ramified vessel network that is tailored to meet its physiological functions. How the brain vasculature is formed has long been fascinating biologists. Here we report that the developing vasculature in the zebrafish midbrain undergoes not only angiogenesis but also extensive vessel pruning, which is driven by changes in blood flow. This pruning process shapes the initial exuberant interconnected meshwork into...

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Plos Biology : Hippocampal Neurons Keep Track of Two Things—one Mo...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : the Mismeasure of Science ; Stephen Jay Gould Versu...

By: David Degusta
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Plos Biology : Evolution and Creationism in America’s Classrooms ;...

By: Michael B. Berkman
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Plos Biology : It’s Not How Fat You Are,it’s What You Do with it T...

By: Samuel Virtue
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Plos Biology : Two Distinct E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Have Complementar...

By: Alfonso Martinez Arias

Description : Signaling by the Notch ligands Delta (Dl) and Serrate (Ser) regulates a wide variety of essential cell-fate decisions during animal development. Two distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, Neuralized (Neur) and Mind bomb (Mib), have been shown to regulate Dl signaling in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio, respectively. While the neur and mib genes are evolutionarily conserved, their respective roles in the context of a single organism have not yet been examine...

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Plos Biology : a Competition Between Stimulators and Antagonists o...

By: Guramrit Singh

Description : The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway subjects mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) to rapid decay. The conserved Upf1–3 complex interacts with the eukaryotic translation release factors, eRF3 and eRF1, and triggers NMD when translation termination takes place at a PTC. Contrasting models postulate central roles in PTCrecognition for the exon junction complex in mammals versus the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in other eukaryotes....

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Plos Biology : Limbic Justice—amygdala Involvement in Immediate Re...

By: Ernst Fehr

Description : Imaging studies have revealed a putative neural account of emotional bias in decision making. However, it has been difficult in previous studies to identify the causal role of the different sub-regions involved in decision making. The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a game to study the punishment of norm-violating behavior. In a previous influential paper on UG it was suggested that frontal insular cortex has a pivotal role in the rejection response. This view has n...

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Plos Biology : Can Farmed and Wild Salmon Coexist, Volume 6

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : the Elusive Baseline of Marine Disease ; Are Diseas...

By: Larry Crowder

Description : Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis : the proportion ...

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Plos Biology : Functional Partitioning of Yeast Co-expression Netw...

By: Laurence Hurst

Description : Several species of yeast, including the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underwent a genome duplication roughly 100 million years ago. We analyze genetic networks whose members were involved in this duplication. Many networks show detectable redundancy and strong asymmetry in their interactions. For networks of co-expressed genes, we find evidence for network partitioning whereby the paralogs appear to have formed two relatively independent subnetwor...

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Plos Biology : Root System Architecture from Coupling Cell Shape t...

By: Marta Laskowski

Description : Lateral organ position along roots and shoots largely determines plant architecture, and depends on auxin distribution patterns. Determination of the underlying patterning mechanisms has hitherto been complicated because they operate during growth and division. Here, we show by experiments and computational modeling that curvature of the Arabidopsis root influences cell sizes, which, together with tissue properties that determine auxin transport, induces hi...

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Plos Biology : Perception, Action, and Roelofs Effect ; a Mere Ill...

By: Martin S. Banks

Description : A prominent and influential hypothesis of vision suggests the existence of two separate visual systems within the brain, one creating our perception of the world and another guiding our actions within it. The induced Roelofs effect has been described as providing strong evidence for this perception/action dissociation : When a small visual target is surrounded by a large frame positioned so that the frame’s center is offset from the observer’s midline, the ...

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Plos Biology : the Transcriptome of the Intraerythrocytic Developm...

By: Gary Ward

Description : Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most burdensome form of human malaria, affecting 200–300 million individuals per year worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of P. falciparum revealed over 5,400 genes, of which 60% encode proteins of unknown function. Insights into the biochemical function and regulation of these genes will provide the foundation for future drug and vaccine development efforts toward eradication of this disease. By anal...

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Plos Biology : Nanotubes Make Big Science, Volume 2

By: Fabio Demontis
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