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Plos Biology : Science Star Over Asia, Volume 3

By: Chris Y. H. Tan
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Plos Biology : Intermingling of Chromosome Territories in Interpha...

By: Peter Becker

Description : After mitosis, mammalian chromosomes partially decondense to occupy distinct territories in the cell nucleus. Current models propose that territories are separated by an interchromatin domain, rich in soluble nuclear machinery, where only rare interchromosomal interactions can occur via extended chromatin loops. In contrast, recent evidence for chromatin mobility and high frequency of chromosome translocations are consistent with significant levels of chrom...

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Plos Biology : from Structure to Function ; Mapping the Connection...

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : the Emergence of Complexity ; Lessons from Dna, Vol...

By: Chengde Mao
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Plos Biology : Paradoxes of Difference, Volume 2

By: Lee Sandra Soo-jin
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Plos Biology : Emergence of Noise-induced Oscillations in the Cent...

By: Emmanuel Mignot

Description : Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication...

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Plos Biology : Inhibition of the Prokaryotic Pentameric Ligand-gat...

By: Hidde L. Ploegh

Description : The modulation of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) by divalent cations is believed to play an important role in their regulation in a physiological context. Ions such as calcium or zinc influence the activity of pLGIC neurotransmitter receptors by binding to their extracellular domain and either potentiate or inhibit channel activation. Here we have investigated by electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography the effect of divalent ions on ELIC,...

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Plos Biology : Repression of Flowering by the Mir172 Target Smz, V...

By: Caroline Dean

Description : A small mobile protein, encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) locus, plays a central role in the control of flowering. FT is regulated positively by CONSTANS (CO), the output of the photoperiod pathway, and negatively by FLC, which integrates the effects of prolonged cold exposure. Here, we reveal the mechanisms of regulation by the microRNA miR172 target SCHLAFMU¨TZE (SMZ), a potent repressor of flowering. Whole-genome mapping of SMZ binding sites demonstr...

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Plos Biology : Using Structural Information to Change the Phosphot...

By: Gregory A. Petsko

Description : Two-component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases (HPKs) and their response regulators (RRs) are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges. Some bacteria have over 150 different two-component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk. One of the best understood two-component signalling pathways is the chemo...

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Plos Biology : an Abscisic Acid-independent Oxylipin Pathway Contr...

By: Jeffery L. Dangl

Description : Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptid...

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Plos Biology : Convergent Evolution of Chromosomal Sex-determining...

By: David Page

Description : Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT) loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene c...

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Plos Biology : Control of Phage Bxb1 Excision by a Novel Recombina...

By: Bénédicte Michel

Description : Mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrates its DNA at the attB site of the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome using the viral attP site and a phage-encoded integrase generating the recombinant junctions attL and attR. The Bxb1 integrase is a member of the serine recombinase family of site-specific recombination proteins and utilizes small (,50 base pair) substrates for recombination, promoting strand exchange without the necessity for complex higher order macromolecular...

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Plos Biology : Genomic Dna Sequences from Mastodon and Woolly Mamm...

By: David Penny

Description : To elucidate the history of living and extinct elephantids, we generated 39,763 bp of aligned nuclear DNA sequence across 375 loci for African savanna elephant, African forest elephant, Asian elephant, the extinct American mastodon, and the woolly mammoth. Our data establish that the Asian elephant is the closest living relative of the extinct mammoth in the nuclear genome, extending previous findings from mitochondrial DNA analyses. We also find that savan...

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Plos Biology : Lefty Blocks a Subset of Tgfβ Signals by Antagonizi...

By: Hiroshi Hamada

Description : Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFb signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFb signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and compete...

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Plos Biology : Gut Bacteria May Override Genetic Protections Again...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Open Education, Open Minds, Volume 8

By: Cheryl A. Kerfeld
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Plos Biology : One Secret of Longevity ; the Fatty Acid Pathway, V...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Dynamic Coupling of Pattern Formation and Morphogen...

By: William A. Harris

Description : During embryonic development, pattern formation must be tightly synchronized with tissue morphogenesis to coordinate the establishment of the spatial identities of cells with their movements. In the vertebrate retina, patterning along the dorsal-ventral and nasal-temporal (anterior-posterior) axes is required for correct spatial representation in the retinotectal map. However, it is unknown how specification of axial cell positions in the retina occurs duri...

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Plos Biology : Cancer Courts Immune Response to Aid Growth, Volume 8

By: Robin Mejia
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Plos Biology : Distributed Neural Plasticity for Shape Learning in...

By: Robert Desimone

Description : Expertise in recognizing objects in cluttered scenes is a critical skill for our interactions in complex environments and is thought to develop with learning. However, the neural implementation of object learning across stages of visual analysis in the human brain remains largely unknown. Using combined psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show a link between shape-specific learning in cluttered scenes and distributed neuronal ...

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