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Plos Biology : Two Pi 3-kinases and One Pi 3-phosphatase Together ...

By: Barbara Conradt

Description : Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 is regarded as the only kinase that produces PtdIns(3)P in phagosomal membranes. We report he...

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Plos Biology : Association of Lipidome Remodeling in the Adipocyte...

By: D. Peter Tieleman

Description : Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved states of obesity by investigating a separated set of individuals considered to be morbidly obese. Despite lower dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, the obe...

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Plos Biology : Distributive Conjugal Transfer in Mycobacteria Gene...

By: Jonathan A. Eisen

Description : Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacteria generates variation and drives evolution, and conjugation is considered a major contributor as it can mediate transfer of large segments of DNA between strains and species. We previously described a novel form of chromosomal conjugation in mycobacteria that does not conform to classic oriT-based conjugation models, and whose potential evolutionary significance has not been evaluated. Here, we determined the genome ...

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Plos Biology : the Risk of a Mosquito-borne Infection in a Heterog...

By: Andy P. Dobson

Description : A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection—the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate) and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious—are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood...

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Plos Biology : Strong Purifying Selection in Transmission of Mamma...

By: James Bruce Stewart

Description : There is an intense debate concerning whether selection or demographics has been most important in shaping the sequence variation observed in modern human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Purifying selection is thought to be important in shaping mtDNA sequence evolution, but the strength of this selection has been debated, mainly due to the threshold effect of pathogenic mtDNA mutations and an observed excess of new mtDNA mutations in human population data. We ex...

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Plos Biology : the Liganding of Glycolipid Transfer Protein is Con...

By: Fred Hughson

Description : Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play major roles in cellular growth and development. Mammalian glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are potential regulators of cell processes mediated by GSLs and display a unique architecture among lipid binding/transfer proteins. The GLTP fold represents a novel membrane targeting/interaction domain among peripheral proteins. Here we report crystal structures of human GLTP bound to GSLs of diverse acyl chain length, unsaturation...

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Plos Biology : Dna Detection Using Recombination Proteins, Volume 4

By: James Haber

Description : DNA amplification is essential to most nucleic acid testing strategies, but established techniques require sophisticated equipment or complex experimental procedures, and their uptake outside specialised laboratories has been limited. Our novel approach, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), couples isothermal recombinase-driven primer targeting of template material with strand-displacement DNA synthesis. It achieves exponential amplification with no ...

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Plos Biology : Prox1 is Required for Granule Cell Maturation and I...

By: Theo D. Palmer

Description : The dentate gyrus has an important role in learning and memory, and adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus may play a role in the acquisition of new memories. The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in the dentate gyrus during embryonic development and adult neurogenesis. Here we show that Prox1 is necessary for the maturation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus during development and for the maintenance of intermediate progenitors d...

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Plos Biology : Bridging Psychology and Mathematics ; Can the Brain...

By: Mariano Sigman

Description : “It was not only diffi cult for him to understand that the generic term dog embraced so many unlike specimens of differing sizes and different forms: he was disturbed by the fact that a dog at threefourteen (seen in profi le) should have the same name as the dog at three-fi fteen (seen from the front).…Without effort, he had learned English, French, Portuguese, Latin. I suspect, nevertheless, that he was not very capable of thought. To think is to forget a ...

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Plos Biology : Sumo-specific Protease 2 is Essential for Modulatin...

By: Shang-yi Chiu

Description : SUMO-specific protease 2 (SENP2) modifies proteins by removing SUMO from its substrates. Although SUMO-specific proteases are known to reverse sumoylation in many defined systems, their importance in mammalian development and pathogenesis remains largely elusive. Here we report that SENP2 is highly expressed in trophoblast cells that are required for placentation. Targeted disruption of SENP2 in mice reveals its essential role in development of all three tr...

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Plos Biology : Mutualistic Interactions Drive Ecological Niche Con...

By: Marianne Elias

Description : Ecological communities are structured in part by evolutionary interactions among their members. A number of recent studies incorporating phylogenetics into community ecology have upheld the paradigm that competition drives ecological divergence among species of the same guild. However, the role of other interspecific interactions, in particular positive interactions such as mutualism, remains poorly explored. We characterized the ecological niche and inferr...

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Plos Biology : the Limits to Sustainability Science ; Ecological C...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocea...

By: Georgina M. MacE

Description : The diversity of life is one of the most striking aspects of our planet: hence knowing how many species inhabit Earth is among the most fundamental questions in science. Yet the answer to this question remains enigmatic, as efforts to sample the world’s biodiversity to date have been limited and thus have precluded direct quantification of global species richness, and because indirect estimates rely on assumptions that have proven highly controversial. Here...

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Plos Biology : the Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry Across Eur...

By: Chris Tyler-smith

Description : The recent genealogical history of human populations is a complex mosaic formed by individual migration, large-scale population movements, and other demographic events. Population genomics datasets can provide a window into this recent history, as rare traces of recent shared genetic ancestry are detectable due to long segments of shared genomic material. We make use of genomic data for 2,257 Europeans (in the Population Reference Sample [POPRES] dataset) t...

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Plos Biology : Feedback Between Population and Evolutionary Dynami...

By: Stephen P. Ellner

Description : The evolutionary spread of cheater strategies can destabilize populations engaging in social cooperative behaviors, thus demonstrating that evolutionary changes can have profound implications for population dynamics. At the same time, the relative fitness of cooperative traits often depends upon population density, thus leading to the potential for bi-directional coupling between population density and the evolution of a cooperative trait. Despite the poten...

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Plos Biology : Cryptic Variation Between Species and the Basis of ...

By: Mohamed A. F. Noor

Description : Crosses between closely related species give two contrasting results. One result is that species hybrids may be inferior to their parents, for example, being less fertile [1]. The other is that F1 hybrids may display superior performance (heterosis), for example with increased vigour [2]. Although various hypotheses have been proposed to account for these two aspects of hybridisation, their biological basis is still poorly understood [3]. To gain further in...

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Plos Biology : Fission Yeast Cells Undergo Nuclear Division in the...

By: Michael Lichten

Description : Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to spindle microtubules. In fission yeast, mitosis occurs within an intact nuclear membrane with the mitotic spindle elongating between the spindle pole bodies. We show h...

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Plos Biology : Protecting Science from Abuse Requires a Broader Fo...

By: Kai M. A. Chan
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Plos Biology : a Pacific Culture Among Wild Baboons ; Its Emergenc...

By: Frans B. M. De Waal

Description : Reports exist of transmission of culture in nonhuman primates. We examine this in a troop of savanna baboons studied since 1978. During the mid-1980s, half of the males died from tuberculosis: because of circumstances of the outbreak, it was more aggressive males who died, leaving a cohort of atypically unaggressive survivors. A decade later, these behavioral patterns persisted. Males leave their natal troops at adolescence: by the mid-1990s, no males remai...

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Plos Biology : the European Research Council— a European Renaissan...

By: Bill O’neill
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