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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Oxidative Stress and Dna Lesion...

By: Reza Salavati

Description : The main consequence of oxidative stress is the formation of DNA lesions, which can result in genomic instability and lead to cell death. Guanine is the base that is most susceptible to oxidation, due to its low redox potential, and 8-oxoguanine (8- oxoG) is the most common lesion. These characteristics make 8-oxoG a good cellular biomarker to indicate the extent of oxidative stress. If not repaired, 8-oxoG can pair with adenine and cause a G:C to T:A trans...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Correlative and Dynamic Imaging...

By: Jennifer Keiser

Description : The hatching of S. japonicum eggs is a striking phenomenon, whereby the larva is liberated explosively while still encapsulated within its sub-shell envelopes. The major alterations that occur in the egg during activation are scission of the outer envelope-eggshell boundary, autolysis of the cellular inner envelope, and likely hydration of abundant complex and simple polysaccharides in the lacunal space between the miracidial larva and surrounding envelopes...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Assessing the Effectiveness of ...

By: Oladele B. Akogun

Description : These results suggest that our current program of film-based educational activities is effective in improving disease-specific knowledge and may encourage individuals to seek out the advice of health workers when monkeypox is suspected.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Control of Tungiasis Through In...

By: James S. McCarthy

Description : Our study shows that in a setting with intense transmission, tungiasis-associated morbidity can be minimized through the intermittent application of a plant-based repellent.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Genetic Characterizations of Gi...

By: Jorge A. Huete-perez

Description : This is the first report of G. duodenalis infections in sheep and goats in China. The present data revealed the unique endemicity on prevalence, distribution and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province. The findings of assemblages A and B in sheep and goats implied the potential of zoonotic transmission.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Profile of Central and Effector...

By: Ana Rodriguez

Description : Based on a correlation between the frequency of IFN-c producing CD8+ T cells in the T cell memory compartment and the chronic chagasic myocarditis, we propose that memory T cells can be involved in the induction of the development of the severe clinical forms of the Chagas disease by mechanisms modulated by IFN-c. Furthermore, we showed that individuals from IND group presented more TCM CD4+ T cells, which may induce a regulatory mechanism to protect the ho...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Cell Th...

By: Helton Da Costa Santiago

Description : We conclude that the beneficial effects of MSC therapy in chagasic mice arise from an indirect action of the cells in the heart rather than a direct action due to incorporation of large numbers of transplanted MSC into working myocardium.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Characterization of the Entamoe...

By: Anuradha Lohia

Description : To our knowledge this is the first report on the molecular characterization of putative ODC-like sequence from E. histolytica. Computer modeling revealed that three of the critical residues required for binding of DFMO to the ODC enzyme are substituted in E. histolytica, resulting in the likely loss of interactions between the enzyme and DFMO.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Occurrence of Nontuberculous My...

By: Pamela L. C. Small

Description : The majority of investigations of the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have focused on highly developed nations with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. In contrast, the Para state of north Brazil represents an area of high tuberculosis prevalence and increasing NTM incidence. Toward the goal of understanding the dynamics of infection by all Mycobacterium species, we report patient characteristics and the identification of NTM strains isolate...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : the Neovolcanic Axis is a Barri...

By: Duane Gubler

Description : Barriers to gene flow in vector populations may also impact the frequency of genes that condition continuous and epidemiologically relevant traits such as vector competence. Further studies are warranted to determine why the NVA is a barrier to gene flow and to determine whether the differences in vector competence seen north and south of the NVA are stable and epidemiologically significant.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Local Suppression of T Cell Res...

By: Charles Jaffe

Description : The balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell responses is a major determinant of the outcome of experimental leishmaniasis, but polarized Th1 or Th2 responses are not sufficient to account for healing or nonhealing. Here we show that high arginase activity, a hallmark of nonhealing disease, is primarily expressed locally at the site of pathology. The high arginase activity causes local depletion of L-arginine, which impairs the capacity of T cells in th...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Evaluation of the Effectiveness...

By: Roberto Barrera

Description : Deployment of insecticide treated window curtains in households can result in significant reductions in A. aegypti levels when dengue vector infestations are moderate, but the magnitude of the effect depends on the coverage attained, which itself can decline rapidly over time.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Elimination of Iron Deficiency ...

By: Aric Gregson

Description : Population-based interventions can efficiently and effectively reduce anemia and practically eliminate iron deficiency anemia and moderate to heavy soil transmitted helminth infections, maintaining them below the level of public health concern.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Predictive Vs. Empiric Assessme...

By: Simon Brooker

Description : Using the current predictive map for Ghana as a spatial decision support tool by aggregating prevalence estimates to the district level was clearly not adequate for guiding the national program, but the alternative of assessing each school in potentially endemic areas of Ghana or elsewhere is not at all feasible: modelling must be a tool complementary to empiric assessments. Thus for practical usefulness, predictive risk mapping should not be thought of as ...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : the Salivary Secretome of the T...

By: Jesus G. Valenzuela

Description : SGHV alters the protein expression pattern in Glossina. The G. pallidipes SG secretome encompasses a spectrum of proteins that may be required during the SGHV infection cycle. These detected proteins have putative interactions with at least 21 of the 25 SGHV-encoded proteins. Our findings opens venues for developing novel SGHV mitigation strategies to block SGHV infections in tsetse production facilities such as using SGHV-specific antibodies and phage disp...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Restricted Application of Insec...

By: Joseph Mathu Ndung’u

Description : Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an improved control of trypanosomoses vectors.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Filarial Worms Reduce Plasmodiu...

By: Rhoel Ramos

Description : These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Reduction and Return of Infecti...

By: Albert I. Ko

Description : In some of the most severely affected communities ever studied, we demonstrate that repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions progressively reduce ocular chlamydial infection in a community, as long as these distributions are given frequently enough and at a high enough coverage. However, infection returns into the communities after the last treatment. Sustainable changes or complete local elimination of infection will be necessary.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : T Helper 1–inducing Adjuvant Pr...

By: Edgar Carvalho

Description : Immunostimulatory therapy is a promising approach to improving the treatment of systemic fungal infections such as paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), whose drug therapy is usually prolonged and associated with toxic side effects and relapses. The current study was undertaken to determine if the injection of a T helper (Th) 1–stimulating adjuvant in P. brasiliensis– infected mice could have a beneficial effect on the course of experimental PCM. For this purpose, ...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Human and Canine Echinococcosis...

By: Akira Ito

Description : Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru: nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically ...

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