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Plos Biology : Exploiting Thiol Modifi Cations, Volume 2

By: Patricia J. Kiley
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Plos Biology : Regulatory Hotspots in the Malaria Parasite Genome ...

By: Joseph M. Gonzales

Description : The determinants of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites remain elusive. The presence of a wellcharacterized gene expression cascade shared by different Plasmodium falciparum strains could imply that transcriptional regulation and its natural variation do not contribute significantly to the evolution of parasite drug resistance. To clarify the role of transcriptional variation as a source of stain-specific diversity in the most deadly malaria spe...

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Plos Biology : a Window Into the Workings of the Segmentation Cloc...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : the Vestibular System Implements a Linear–nonlinear...

By: Kate G. Storey

Description : Although it is well established that the neural code representing the world changes at each stage of a sensory pathway, the transformations that mediate these changes are not well understood. Here we show that self-motion (i.e. vestibular) sensory information encoded by VIIIth nerve afferents is integrated nonlinearly by post-synaptic central vestibular neurons. This response nonlinearity was characterized by a strong (,50%) attenuation in neuronal sensitiv...

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Plos Biology : a Yeast Model of Fus, Volume 9

By: Jonathan S. Weissman

Description : FUS/TLS is a nucleic acid binding protein that, when mutated, can cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Although FUS/TLS is normally located predominantly in the nucleus, the pathogenic mutant forms of FUS/TLS traffic to, and form inclusions in, the cytoplasm of affected spinal motor neurons or glia. Here we report a yeast model of human FUS/TLS expression that recapitulates multiple salient features of the pathology of the diseas...

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Plos Biology : Distinct Olfactory Signaling Mechanisms in the Mala...

By: Hubert Amrein

Description : Anopheles gambiae is the principal Afrotropical vector for human malaria, in which olfaction mediates a wide range of both adult and larval behaviors. Indeed, mosquitoes depend on the ability to respond to chemical cues for feeding, host preference, and mate location/selection. Building upon previous work that has characterized a large family of An. gambiae odorant receptors (AgORs), we now use behavioral analyses and gene silencing to examine directly the ...

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Plos Biology : a Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-based Tour...

By: Walt V. Reid

Description : Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been c...

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Plos Biology : Integrating Teaching and Research in Undergraduate ...

By: Cheryl A. Kerfeld
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Plos Biology : a Global Census of Fission Yeast Deubiquitinating E...

By: Jonathan S. Weissman

Description : Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reciprocal processes that tune protein stability, function, and/or localization. The removal of ubiquitin and remodeling of ubiquitin chains is catalyzed by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which are cysteine proteases or metalloproteases. Although ubiquitination has been extensively studied for decades, the complexity of cellular roles for deubiquitinating enzymes has only recently been explored, and there are still ...

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Plos Biology : the Case for Selection at Ccr5-d32, Volume 3

By: Andy Clark

Description : The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-D32) allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-D32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%–14%) in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, includ...

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Plos Biology : Bip Binding to the Er-stress Sensor Ire1 Tunes the ...

By: Jeffrey W. Kelly

Description : The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that counteracts variable stresses that impair protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As such, the UPR is thought to be a homeostat that finely tunes ER protein folding capacity and ER abundance according to need. The mechanism by which the ER stress sensor Ire1 is activated by unfolded proteins and the role that the ER chaperone protein BiP plays in Ire1 regulation have r...

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Plos Biology : Regulatory Variation at Glypican-3 Underlies a Majo...

By: Jonathan Flint

Description : The genetic basis of variation in complex traits remains poorly understood, and few genes underlying variation have been identified. Previous work identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for much of the response to selection on growth in mice, effecting a change in body mass of approximately 20%. By fine-mapping, we have resolved the location of this QTL to a 660-kb region containing only two genes of known function, Gpc3 and Gpc4, and two o...

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Plos Biology : Increased Transmission of Mutations by Low-conditio...

By: Aneil F. Agrawal

Description : Evidence is mounting that mutation rates are sufficiently high for deleterious alleles to be a major evolutionary force affecting the evolution of sex, the maintenance of genetic variation, and many other evolutionary phenomena. Though point estimates of mutation rates are improving, we remain largely ignorant of the biological factors affecting these rates at the individual level. Of special importance is the possibility that mutation rates are condition-d...

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Plos Biology : Anthranilate Fluorescence Marks a Calcium-propagate...

By: Douglas R. Green

Description : For cells the passage from life to death can involve a regulated, programmed transition. In contrast to cell death, the mechanisms of systemic collapse underlying organismal death remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence of a cascade of cell death involving the calpain-cathepsin necrosis pathway that can drive organismal death in Caenorhabditis elegans. We report that organismal death is accompanied by a burst of intense blue fluorescence, generat...

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Plos Biology : Protein Keeps Adjacent Tissues Growing in Synchrony...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Disease Ecology, Biodiversity, and the Latitudinal ...

By: Terri L. Gilbert

Description : While most of the world is thought to be on long-term economic growth paths, more than one-sixth of the world is roughly as poor today as their ancestors were hundreds of years ago. The majority of the extremely poor live in the tropics. The latitudinal gradient in income is highly suggestive of underlying biophysical drivers, of which disease conditions are an especially salient example. However, conclusions have been confounded by the simultaneous causali...

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Plos Biology : Oscillations, Intercellular Coupling, and Insulin S...

By: Patrick E. MacDonald
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Plos Biology : the Evolution of Connectivity in Metabolic Networks...

By: Simon Levin

Description : Processes in living cells are the result of interactions between biochemical compounds in highly complex biochemical networks. It is a major challenge in biology to understand causes and consequences of the specific design of these networks. A characteristic design feature of metabolic networks is the presence of hub metabolites such as ATP or NADH that are involved in a high number of reactions. To study the emergence of hub metabolites, we implemented com...

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Plos Biology : Mapping Differentiation Under Mixed Culture Conditi...

By: Avinash Bhandoola

Description : Cell differentiation is typically directed by external signals that drive opposing regulatory pathways. Studying differentiation under polarizing conditions, with only one input signal provided, is limited in its ability to resolve the logic of interactions between opposing pathways. Dissection of this logic can be facilitated by mapping the system’s response to mixtures of input signals, which are expected to occur in vivo, where cells are simultaneously e...

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Plos Biology : Targeted Inhibition of Mirna Maturation with Morpho...

By: James C. Carrington

Description : Several vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cellular processes such as muscle differentiation, synapse function, and insulin secretion. In addition, analysis of Dicer null mutants has shown that miRNAs play a role in tissue morphogenesis. Nonetheless, only a few loss-of-function phenotypes for individual miRNAs have been described to date. Here, we introduce a quick and versatile method to interfere with miRNA function during zebrafish emb...

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