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Plos Biology : Trophic Complexity and the Adaptive Value of Damage...

By: Claire Marris

Description : Indirect plant defenses are those facilitating the action of carnivores in ridding plants of their herbivorous consumers, as opposed to directly poisoning or repelling them. Of the numerous and diverse indirect defensive strategies employed by plants, inducible volatile production has garnered the most fascination among plant-insect ecologists. These volatile chemicals are emitted in response to feeding by herbivorous arthropods and serve to guide predators...

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Plos Biology : Quantitative Control of Organ Shape by Combinatoria...

By: Ottoline Leyser

Description : The development of organs with particular shapes, like wings or flowers, depends on regional activity of transcription factors and signalling molecules. However, the mechanisms that link these molecular activities to the morphogenetic events underlying shape are poorly understood. Here we describe a combination of experimental and computational approaches that address this problem, applying them to a group of genes controlling flower shape in the Snapdragon...

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Plos Biology : Tolerance to Self ; Which Cells Kill, Volume 6

By: Terri M. Laufer
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Plos Biology : Novel Melatonin-blocking Complex Helps Control Body...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : an Acetylcholine Receptor Keeps Muscles in Balance,...

By: Rachel Jones
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Plos Biology : a Katp Channel-dependent Pathway Within a Cells Reg...

By: Antonio J. Vidal-puig

Description : Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet a cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring b cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the a cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca2þ responses of a and b cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon re...

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Plos Biology : Cftr Delivery to 25% of Surface Epithelial Cells Re...

By: Lennart Philipson

Description : Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL), mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategi...

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Plos Biology : Antagonism of Lin-17, Volume 9

By: Paul W. Sternberg

Description : Most diversity in animals and plants results from the modification of already existing structures. Many organ systems, for example, are permanently modified during evolution to create developmental and morphological diversity, but little is known about the evolution of the underlying developmental mechanisms. The theory of developmental systems drift proposes that the development of conserved morphological structures can involve large-scale modifications in...

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Plos Biology : Light, Sleep, and Circadian Rhythms ; Together Agai...

By: Derk-jan Dijk
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Plos Biology : Filling in the Gaps ; Artistic License in Education...

By: David S. Goodsell
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Plos Biology : Humans Lack Igb3 Due to the Absence of Functional I...

By: Dale Christiansen

Description : The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3), is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT) cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Gala(1,3)Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested tha...

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Plos Biology : Mapping Meiotic Single-strand Dna Reveals a New Lan...

By: James E. Haber

Description : DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are formed by the Spo11 protein, initiate meiotic recombination. Previous DSB-mapping studies have used rad50S or sae2D mutants, which are defective in break processing, to accumulate Spo11-linked DSBs, and report large ( 50 kb) ‘‘DSB-hot’’ regions that are separated by ‘‘DSB-cold’’ domains of similar size. Substantial recombination occurs in some DSB-cold regions, suggesting that DSB patterns are not normal in rad50S ...

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Plos Biology : Visual Tuning May Boost African Cichlid Diversity, ...

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : Dopamine-independent Locomotor Actions of Amphetami...

By: Eric Nestler

Description : Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mic...

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Plos Biology : a Novel Role for Dbx1-derived Cajal-retzius Cells i...

By: Franck Polleux

Description : Patterning of the cortical neuroepithelium occurs at early stages of embryonic development in response to secreted molecules from signaling centers. These signals have been shown to establish the graded expression of transcription factors in progenitors within the ventricular zone and to control the size and positioning of cortical areas. Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are among the earliest generated cortical neurons and migrate from the borders of the developin...

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Plos Biology : Innate Immunity in Fruit Flies ; a Textbook Example...

By: Shubha Govind
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Plos Biology : Assembly Factor Omp85 Recognizes Its Outer Membrane...

By: Matt Waldor

Description : Integral b-barrel proteins are found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. The assembly of these proteins requires a proteinaceous apparatus of which Omp85 is an evolutionary conserved central component. To study its molecular mechanism, we have produced Omp85 from Escherichia coli in inclusion bodies and refolded it in vitro. The interaction of Omp85 with its substrate proteins was studied in lipidbilayer experim...

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Plos Biology : Data Sharing ; How Much Doesn’t Get Submitted to Ge...

By: Mohamed A. F. Noor
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Plos Biology : Gata3-driven Th2 Responses Inhibit Tgf-b1–induced F...

By: Philippa Marrack

Description : Transcription factors act in concert to induce lineage commitment towards Th1, Th2, or T regulatory (Treg) cells, and their counter-regulatory mechanisms were shown to be critical for polarization between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. FOXP3 is an essential transcription factor for natural, thymus-derived (nTreg) and inducible Treg (iTreg) commitment: however, the mechanisms regulating its expression are as yet unknown. We describe a mechanism controlling iTreg po...

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Plos Biology : Chromatin- and Transcription-related Factors Repres...

By: Vanessa Cheung

Description : Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have demonstrated that cryptic promoters within coding regions activate transcription in particular mutants. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of cryptic transcription in order to identify factors that normally repress cryptic promoters, to determine the amount of cryptic transcription genomewide, and to study the potential for expression of genetic information by cryptic transcription. Our results show ...

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