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Plos Biology : Diverse Rna-binding Proteins Interact with Function...

By: Daniel J. Hogan

Description : RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have roles in the regulation of many post-transcriptional steps in gene expression, but relatively few RBPs have been systematically studied. We searched for the RNA targets of 40 proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae : a selective sample of the approximately 600 annotated and predicted RBPs, as well as several proteins not annotated as RBPs. At least 33 of these 40 proteins, including three of the four proteins that wer...

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Plos Biology : Intravascular Immune Surveillance by Cxcr6Þ Nkt Cel...

By: Marc Jenkins

Description : We examined the in vivo behavior of liver natural killer T cells (NKT cells) by intravital fluorescence microscopic imaging of mice in which a green fluorescent protein cDNA was used to replace the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR6. NKT cells, which account for most CXCR6þ cells in liver, were found to crawl within hepatic sinusoids at 10–20 lm/min and to stop upon T cell antigen receptor activation. CXCR6-deficient mice exhibited a selective and s...

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Plos Biology : Self-assembling Peptide Detergents Stabilize Isolat...

By: Greg Petsko

Description : We used a class of designed peptide detergents to stabilize photosystem I (PS-I) upon extended drying under N2 on a gold-coated-Ni-NTA glass surface. PS-I is a chlorophyll-containing membrane protein complex that is the primary reducer of ferredoxin and the electron acceptor of plastocyanin. We isolated the complex from the thylakoids of spinach chloroplasts using a chemical detergent. The chlorophyll molecules associated with the PS-I complex provide an in...

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Plos Biology : Hiv-1 Tat Stimulates Transcription Complex Assembly...

By: Jim Kadonaga

Description : The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) transactivator protein Tat is an unusual transcriptional activator that is thought to act solely by promoting RNA polymerase II processivity. Here we study the mechanism of Tat action by analyzing transcription complex (TC) assembly in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We find, unexpectedly, that like typical activators Tat dramatically stimulates TC assembly. Surprisingly, however, the TC forme...

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Plos Biology : Control of Translation and Mirna-dependent Repressi...

By: Jens Lykke-andersen

Description : Translation control often operates via remodeling of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles. The poly(A) binding protein (PABP) simultaneously interacts with the 39 poly(A) tail of the mRNA and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) to stimulate translation. PABP also promotes miRNA-dependent deadenylation and translational repression of target mRNAs. We demonstrate that isoform 2 of the mouse heterogeneous nuclear protein Q (hnRNP-Q2/SYNCRI...

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Plos Biology : Secretion and Signaling Activities of Lipoprotein- ...

By: James Briscoe

Description : Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control animal development and tissue homeostasis. They activate gene expression by regulating processing, stability, and activation of Gli/Cubitus interruptus (Ci) transcription factors. Hh proteins are secreted and spread through tissue, despite becoming covalently linked to sterol during processing. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to release Hh proteins in distinct forms: in Drosophila, lipoproteins facilitate long-range Hh ...

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Plos Biology : Axonal Dynamics of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neuron...

By: Daniel Feldman

Description : Cortical topography can be remapped as a consequence of sensory deprivation, suggesting that cortical circuits are continually modified by experience. To see the effect of altered sensory experience on specific components of cortical circuits, we imaged neurons, labeled with a genetically modified adeno-associated virus, in the intact mouse somatosensory cortex before and after whisker plucking. Following whisker plucking we observed massive and rapid reorg...

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Plos Biology : Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics Across th...

By: Jayna L. Ditty
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Plos Biology : Protection of Sinorhizobium Against Host Cysteine-r...

By: Jeffery L. Dangl

Description : Sinorhizobium meliloti differentiates into persisting, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within root nodules of the legume Medicago truncatula. Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development. However, the bacterial factors central to the NCR AMP response and the in planta role of BacA are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that BacA is critical for the bacterial response t...

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Plos Biology : Transient Neuronal Populations Are Required to Guid...

By: William A. Harris

Description : The corpus callosum (CC) is the main pathway responsible for interhemispheric communication. CC agenesis is associated with numerous human pathologies, suggesting that a range of developmental defects can result in abnormalities in this structure. Midline glial cells are known to play a role in CC development, but we here show that two transient populations of midline neurons also make major contributions to the formation of this commissure. We report that ...

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Plos Biology : Ras and Gpa2 Mediate One Branch of a Redundant Gluc...

By: Paul Spellman

Description : Addition of glucose to starved yeast cells elicits a dramatic restructuring of the transcriptional and metabolic state of the cell. While many components of the signaling network responsible for this response have been identified, a comprehensive view of this network is lacking. We have used global analysis of gene expression to assess the roles of the small GTP-binding proteins, Ras2 and Gpa2, in mediating the transcriptional response to glucose. We find t...

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Plos Biology : Planting the Seeds of a New Paradigm, Volume 2

By: Marjori A. Matzke
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Plos Biology : Vestigial Rides a Fat, Volume 8

By: San Francisco
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Plos Biology : Parietal Cortex Signals Come Unstuck in Time, Volume 10

By: Deirdre C. Lyons

Description : Humans and other animals are surprisingly adept at estimating the duration of temporal intervals, even without the use of watches and clocks. This ability is typically studied in the lab by asking observers to indicate their estimate of the time between two external sensory events. The results of such studies confirm that humans can accurately estimate durations on a variety of time scales. Although many brain areas are thought to contribute to the represen...

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Plos Biology : Shifts in Coding Properties and Maintenance of Info...

By: Ford F. Ebner

Description : Neuronal responses to ongoing stimulation in many systems change over time, or ‘‘adapt.’’ Despite the ubiquity of adaptation, its effects on the stimulus information carried by neurons are often unknown. Here we examine how adaptation affects sensory coding in barrel cortex. We used spike-triggered covariance analysis of single-neuron responses to continuous, rapidly varying vibrissa motion stimuli, recorded in anesthetized rats. Changes in stimulus statist...

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Plos Biology : Cholinergic Activation of M2 Receptors Leads to Con...

By: Alberto Bacci

Description : In many brain regions, inhibition is mediated by numerous classes of specialized interneurons, but within the rodent dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), a single class of interneuron is present. dLGN interneurons inhibit thalamocortical (TC) neurons and regulate the activity of TC neurons evoked by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), thereby controlling the visually evoked signals reaching the cortex. It is not known whether neuromodulation can regulate in...

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Plos Biology : the Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size Across...

By: Walter Jetz

Description : Traits such as clutch size vary markedly across species and environmental gradients but have usually been investigated from either a comparative or a geographic perspective, respectively. We analyzed the global variation in clutch size across 5,290 bird species, excluding brood parasites and pelagic species. We integrated intrinsic (morphological, behavioural), extrinsic (environmental), and phylogenetic effects in a combined model that predicts up to 68% o...

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Plos Biology : Science Star Over Asia, Volume 3

By: Chris Y. H. Tan
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Plos Biology : Genetic Dissection of the Function of Hindbrain Axo...

By: William A. Harris

Description : In Bilateria, many axons cross the midline of the central nervous system, forming well-defined commissures. Whereas in mammals the functions of commissures in the forebrain and in the visual system are well established, functions at other axial levels are less clearly understood. Here, we have dissected the function of several hindbrain commissures using genetic methods. By taking advantage of multiple Cre transgenic lines, we have induced site-specific del...

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Plos Biology : 2-d Structure of the a Region of Xist Rna and Its I...

By: Kathleen Hall

Description : In placental mammals, inactivation of one of the X chromosomes in female cells ensures sex chromosome dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding Xist RNA is crucial to this process and accumulates on the future inactive X chromosome. The most conserved Xist RNA region, the A region, contains eight or nine repeats separated by U-rich spacers. It is implicated in the recruitment of late inactivated X genes to the silencing compartment and likely in the recruit...

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