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Plos Biology : Selenoproteins—tracing the Role of a Trace Element ...

By: Thressa C. Stadtman
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Plos Biology : Forty Years in the Making ; Understanding the Molec...

By: Marta Perego

Description : Signal transduction systems are influenced by positive and negative forces resulting in an output reflecting the sum of the opposing forces. The Rap family of regulatory protein modules control the output of two component signal transduction systems through protein:- protein and protein : peptide interactions. These modules and their peptide regulators are found in complex signaling pathways, including the bacterial developmental pathway to sporulation, com...

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Plos Biology : from Child to Young Adult, the Brain Changes Its Co...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : How Bacterial Communities Expand Functional Reperto...

By: James Versalovic
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Plos Biology : from Molecules to Behavior ; Organismal-level Regul...

By: Eric S. Fortune
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Plos Biology : Hedgehog Signaling Acts with the Temporal Cascade t...

By: Matthew P. Scott

Description : In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series) acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this ‘‘temporal series’’ acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the poste...

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Plos Biology : Splicing and the Evolution of Proteins in Mammals, ...

By: Kenneth H. Wolfe

Description : It is often supposed that a protein’s rate of evolution and its amino acid content are determined by the function and anatomy of the protein. Here we examine an alternative possibility, namely that the requirement to specify in the unprocessed RNA, in the vicinity of intron–exon boundaries, information necessary for removal of introns (e.g., exonic splice enhancers) affects both amino acid usage and rates of protein evolution. We find that the majority of a...

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Plos Biology : the Roles of Apc and Axin Derived from Experimental...

By: Roel Nusse

Description : Wnt signaling plays an important role in both oncogenesis and development. Activation of the Wnt pathway results in stabilization of the transcriptional coactivator b-catenin. Recent studies have demonstrated that axin, which coordinates b-catenin degradation, is itself degraded. Although the key molecules required for transducing a Wnt signal have been identified, a quantitative understanding of this pathway has been lacking. We have developed a mathematic...

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Plos Biology : Hiv-1 Nef Binds the Dock2–elmo1 Complex to Activate...

By: Michael Emerman

Description : The infectious cycle of primate lentiviruses is intimately linked to interactions between cells of the immune system. Nef, a potent virulence factor, alters cellular environments to increase lentiviral replication in the host, yet the mechanisms underlying these effects have remained elusive. Since Nef likely functions as an adaptor protein, we exploited a proteomic approach to directly identify molecules that Nef targets to subvert the signaling machinery ...

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Plos Biology : Electrostatically Biased Binding of Kinesin to Micr...

By: Jon M. Scholey

Description : The minimum motor domain of kinesin-1 is a single head. Recent evidence suggests that such minimal motor domains generate force by a biased binding mechanism, in which they preferentially select binding sites on the microtubule that lie ahead in the progress direction of the motor. A specific molecular mechanism for biased binding has, however, so far been lacking. Here we use atomistic Brownian dynamics simulations combined with experimental mutagenesis to...

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Plos Biology : How Signaling Receptors Meet Their End, Volume 6

By: Mary Hoff
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Plos Biology : Emergence of Noise-induced Oscillations in the Cent...

By: Emmanuel Mignot

Description : Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication...

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Plos Biology : Two Programmed Cell Death Systems in Escherichia Co...

By: Susan M. Rosenberg

Description : In eukaryotes, the classical form of programmed cell death (PCD) is apoptosis, which has as its specific characteristics DNA fragmentation and membrane depolarization. In Escherichia coli a different PCD system has been reported. It is mediated by the toxin–antitoxin system module mazEF. The E. coli mazEF module is one of the most thoroughly studied toxin–antitoxin systems. mazF encodes a stable toxin, MazF, and mazE encodes a labile antitoxin, MazE, which ...

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Plos Biology : a Positive Feedback Loop Involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 Di...

By: Janet Rossant

Description : Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogen...

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Plos Biology : Canine Morphology ; Hunting for Genes and Tracking ...

By: Abigail L. Shearin
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Plos Biology : Bin1 Localizes the L-type Calcium Channel to Cardia...

By: Kenneth R. Chien

Description : The BAR domain protein superfamily is involved in membrane invagination and endocytosis, but its role in organizing membrane proteins has not been explored. In particular, the membrane scaffolding protein BIN1 functions to initiate Ttubule genesis in skeletal muscle cells. Constitutive knockdown of BIN1 in mice is perinatal lethal, which is associated with an induced dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the functional role of BIN1 in cardiomyocytes...

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Plos Biology : Engineering Sexless Seeds as a Path to High-yield C...

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : Iclip Predicts the Dual Splicing Effects of Tia-rna...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : The regulation of alternative splicing involves interactions between RNA-binding proteins and pre-mRNA positions close to the splice sites. T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) and TIA1-like 1 (TIAL1) locally enhance exon inclusion by recruiting U1 snRNP to 59 splice sites. However, effects of TIA proteins on splicing of distal exons have not yet been explored. We used UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to find that TIA1 and TIAL1 bind at the ...

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Plos Biology : Inclusion of Residual Tissue in Biobanks ; Opt-in o...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : Residual samples are an important source of tissue for biobanks. They refer to leftover tissue that is obtained in the course of clinical care. Residual samples can be included through an opt-in method— that is, a person explicitly expresses consent to include residual tissue—or an opt-out method—that is, the tissue is stored unless a person explicitly refuses. At the moment there is a renewed interest in the appropriatemethod for the inclusion of residual ...

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Plos Biology : War Archives ; How Some Primates Fought Off Ancient...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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