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Plos Biology : the European Research Council— a European Renaissan...

By: Bill O’neill
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Plos Biology : Ten_m3 Regulates Eye-specific Patterning in the Mam...

By: William A. Harris

Description : Binocular vision requires an exquisite matching of projections from each eye to form a cohesive representation of the visual world. Eye-specific inputs are anatomically segregated, but in register in the visual thalamus, and overlap within the binocular region of primary visual cortex. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Ten_m3 regulates the alignment of ipsilateral and contralateral projections. It is expressed in a gradient in the developing visu...

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Plos Biology : Rna Viral Community in Human Feces ; Prevalence of ...

By: Jeffrey Dangl

Description : The human gut is known to be a reservoir of a wide variety of microbes, including viruses. Many RNA viruses are known to be associated with gastroenteritis: however, the enteric RNA viral community present in healthy humans has not been described. Here, we present a comparative metagenomic analysis of the RNA viruses found in three fecal samples from two healthy human individuals. For this study, uncultured viruses were concentrated by tangential flow filtr...

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Plos Biology : Pruning Brain Vasculature for Efficiency, Volume 10

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Functional Genomic Analysis of C. Elegans Molting, ...

By: Ronald Plasterk

Description : Although the molting cycle is a hallmark of insects and nematodes, neither the endocrine control of molting via size, stage, and nutritional inputs nor the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis and release of the exoskeleton is well understood. Here, we identify endocrine and enzymatic regulators of molting in C. elegans through a genome-wide RNA-interference screen. Products of the 159 genes discovered include annotated transcription factors, secreted peptides...

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Plos Biology : a High-resolution Anatomical Atlas of the Transcrip...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elu...

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Plos Biology : Where Does Bluetongue Virus Sleep in the Winter, Vo...

By: Anthony Wilson
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Plos Biology : Nutrient-regulated Antisense and Intragenic Rnas Mo...

By: Masafumi Nishizawa

Description : The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae alters its gene expression profile in response to a change in nutrient availability. The PHO system is a well-studied case in the transcriptional regulation responding to nutritional changes in which a set of genes (PHO genes) is expressed to activate inorganic phosphate (Pi) metabolism for adaptation to Pi starvation. Pi starvation triggers an inhibition of Pho85 kinase, leading to migration of unphosphorylated Ph...

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Plos Biology : a Simple Rule for Proteins to Follow, Volume 7

By: Caitlin Sedwick
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Plos Biology : Neuroscience Networks, Volume 1

By: Thomas R. Insel
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Plos Biology : Oncogenic Kras Initiates Leukemia in Hematopoietic ...

By: Craig Thomas Jordan

Description : How oncogenes modulate the self-renewal properties of cancer-initiating cells is incompletely understood. Activating KRAS and NRAS mutations are among the most common oncogenic lesions detected in human cancer, and occur in myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) and leukemias. We investigated the effects of expressing oncogenic KrasG12D from its endogenous locus on the proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor ce...

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Plos Biology : Ubiquitylation in Erad ; Reversing to Go Forward, V...

By: Allan M. Weissman
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Plos Biology : N-terminal Phosphorylation of the Dopamine Transpor...

By: Eric Nestler

Description : Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA efflux into the synaptic cleft. We previously demonstrated that a human DAT construct in which the first 22 amino acids were truncated was not phosphorylated by activation of protein kinase C, in contrast to wild-type (WT) DAT, which was phosphorylated. Nonetheless, in all functions tested to date, which include uptake, inhibitor binding, oligomer...

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Plos Biology : Critical Role of Gap Junction Coupled Katp Channel ...

By: Richard Aldrich

Description : Pancreatic b-cells secrete insulin in response to closure of ATP-sensitive Kþ (KATP) channels, which causes membrane depolarization and a concomitant rise in intracellular Ca2þ (Cai). In intact islets, b-cells are coupled by gap junctions, which are proposed to synchronize electrical activity and Cai oscillations after exposure to stimulatory glucose (.7 mM). To determine the significance of this coupling in regulating insulin secretion, we examined islets ...

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Plos Biology : Rethinking Dams ; Pacific Salmon Recovery May Rest ...

By: Liza Gros
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Plos Biology : Genomics of Emerging Infectious Disease ; a Plos Co...

By: Jonathan A. Eisen
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Plos Biology : a Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-based Tour...

By: Walt V. Reid

Description : Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been c...

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Plos Biology : Role of a Novel Ph-kinase Domain Interface in Pkb, ...

By: Alex Toker

Description : Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) belongs to the AGC superfamily of related serine/threonine protein kinases. It is a key regulator downstream of various growth factors and hormones and is involved in malignant transformation and chemo-resistance. Full-length PKB protein has not been crystallised, thus studying the molecular mechanisms that are involved in its regulation in relation to its structure have not been simple. Recently, the dynamics between the inactive...

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Plos Biology : Complete Structural Model of Escherichia Coli Rna P...

By: Leemor Joshua-tor

Description : The Escherichia coli transcription system is the best characterized from a biochemical and genetic point of view and has served as a model system. Nevertheless, a molecular understanding of the details of E. coli transcription and its regulation, and therefore its full exploitation as a model system, has been hampered by the absence of high-resolution structural information on E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). We use a combination of approaches, including high...

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Plos Biology : Assembly of the Murine Leukemia Virus is Directed T...

By: Michael Emerman

Description : We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell–cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living cells. We demonstrate that de novo assembly is highly polarized towards zones of cell–cell contact...

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