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Plos Biology : an Unbiased Cell Morphology–based Screen for New, B...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : We have implemented an unbiased cell morphology–based screen to identify small-molecule modulators of cellular processes using the Cytometrix (TM) automated imaging and analysis system. This assay format provides unbiased analysis of morphological effects induced by small molecules by capturing phenotypic readouts of most known classes of pharmacological agents and has the potential to read out pathways for which little is known. Four human-cancer cell line...

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Plos Biology : Analysis of Lhcsr3, a Protein Essential for Feedbac...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : In photosynthetic organisms, feedback dissipation of excess absorbed light energy balances harvesting of light with metabolic energy consumption. This mechanism prevents photodamage caused by reactive oxygen species produced by the reaction of chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states with O2. Plants have been found to perform the heat dissipation in specific proteins, binding Chls and carotenoids (Cars), that belong to the Lhc family, while triggering of the proces...

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Plos Biology : Hsp72 Protects Cells from Er Stress-induced Apoptos...

By: Jeffrey W. Kelly

Description : Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardia...

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Plos Biology : a Structural and Mutagenic Blueprint for Molecular ...

By: Raimund Dutzler

Description : Cys-loop receptors (CLR) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast excitatory or inhibitory transmission in the nervous system. Strychnine and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) are neurotoxins that have been highly instrumental in decades of research on glycine receptors (GlyR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), respectively. In this study we addressed the question how the molecular recognition of strychnine and d-TC occurs with high affini...

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Plos Biology : Adaptive Evolution and the Birth of Ctcf Binding Si...

By: Stephen P. Ellner

Description : Changes in the physical interaction between cis-regulatory DNA sequences and proteins drive the evolution of gene expression. However, it has proven difficult to accurately quantify evolutionary rates of such binding change or to estimate the relative effects of selection and drift in shaping the binding evolution. Here we examine the genome-wide binding of CTCF in four species of Drosophila separated by between ,2.5 and 25 million years. CTCF is a highly c...

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Plos Biology : Hearing ; Travelling Wave or Resonance, Volume 2

By: Andrew Bell
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Plos Biology : Origin of Irreversibility of Cell Cycle Start in Bu...

By: James E. Ferrell

Description : Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decisionmaking step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidat...

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Plos Biology : Sperm Sociality ; Cooperation, Altruism,and Spite, ...

By: Tommaso Pizzari
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Plos Biology : the Case of Deborah Rice ; Who is the Environmental...

By: Herbert L. Needleman
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Plos Biology : a Neural Computation for Visual Acuity in the Prese...

By: David Burr

Description : Humans can distinguish visual stimuli that differ by features the size of only a few photoreceptors. This is possible despite the incessant image motion due to fixational eye movements, which can be many times larger than the features to be distinguished. To perform well, the brain must identify the retinal firing patterns induced by the stimulus while discounting similar patterns caused by spontaneous retinal activity. This is a challenge since the traject...

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Plos Biology : a Short-time Scale Colloidal System Reveals Early B...

By: Christophe Beloin

Description : The development of bacteria on abiotic surfaces has important public health and sanitary consequences. However, despite several decades of study of bacterial adhesion to inert surfaces, the biophysical mechanisms governing this process remain poorly understood, due, in particular, to the lack of methodologies covering the appropriate time scale. Using micrometric colloidal surface particles and flow cytometry analysis, we developed a rapid multiparametric a...

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Plos Biology : Structural Basis of Response Regulator Inhibition b...

By: Ann Stock

Description : The complex interplay between the response regulator ComA, the anti-activator RapF, and the signaling peptide PhrF controls competence development in Bacillus subtilis. More specifically, ComA drives the expression of genetic competence genes, while RapF inhibits the interaction of ComA with its target promoters. The signaling peptide PhrF accumulates at high cell density and upregulates genetic competence by antagonizing the interaction of RapF and ComA. H...

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Plos Biology : Self-renewal of Single Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cel...

By: Margaret A. Good Ell

Description : Recent descriptions of significant heterogeneity in normal stem cells and cancers have altered our understanding of tumor genesis, emphasizing the need to understand how single stem cells are subverted to cause tumors. Human myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are thought to reflect transformation of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the majority harbor an acquired V617F mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase, making them a paradigm for studying the early s...

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Plos Biology : Why One is More Than 5, Volume 9

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Immunity in Society ; Diverse Solutions to Common P...

By: David S. Schneider

Description : Understanding how organisms fight infection has been a central focus of scientific research and medicine for the past couple of centuries, and a perennial object of trial and error by humans trying to mitigate the burden of disease. Vaccination success relies upon the exposure of susceptible individuals to pathogen constituents that do not cause (excessive) pathology and that elicit specific immune memory. Mass vaccination allows us to study how immunity op...

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Plos Biology : P180 Promotes the Ribosome-independent Localization...

By: Michael A. Kiebler

Description : In metazoans, the majority of mRNAs coding for secreted and membrane-bound proteins are translated on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although the targeting of these transcripts to the surface of the ER can be mediated by the translation of a signal sequence and their maintenance is mediated by interactions between the ribosome and the translocon, it is becoming increasingly clear that additional ER-localization pathways exist. Here we demons...

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Plos Biology : Patricia Goldman-rakic, Volume 1

By: Pat Levitt
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Plos Biology : Dna Barcoding ; Error Rates Based on Comprehensive ...

By: Charles Godfray

Description : DNA barcoding has attracted attention with promises to aid in species identification and discovery: however, few wellsampled datasets are available to test its performance. We provide the first examination of barcoding performance in a comprehensively sampled, diverse group (cypraeid marine gastropods, or cowries). We utilize previous methods for testing performance and employ a novel phylogenetic approach to calculate intraspecific variation and interspeci...

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Plos Biology : a Bacteriophage Tailspike Domain Promotes Self- Cle...

By: Charles Ffrench-constant

Description : Myelination of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to vertebrate nervous systems for efficient neural signaling. CNS myelination occurs as oligodendrocytes terminally differentiate, a process regulated in part by the myelin regulatory factor, MYRF. Using bioinformatics and extensive biochemical and functional assays, we find that MYRF is generated as an integral membrane protein that must be processed to release its transcription factor domain from...

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Plos Biology : Modification of a Hydrophobic Layer by a Point Muta...

By: Fred Hughson

Description : Both constitutive secretion and Ca2þ-regulated exocytosis require the assembly of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide– sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes. At present, little is known about how the SNARE complexes mediating these two distinct pathways differ in structure. Using the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse as a model, we show that a mutation modifying a hydrophobic layer in syntaxin 1A regulates the rate of vesicle fusion. Syntax...

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