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Plos Biology : Gad2 on Chromosome 10P12 is a Candidate Gene for Hu...

By: John Bell

Description : The gene GAD2 encoding the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme (GAD65) is a positional candidate gene for obesity on Chromosome 10p11–12, a susceptibility locus for morbid obesity in four independent ethnic populations. GAD65 catalyzes the formation of c-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which interacts with neuropeptide Y in the paraventricular nucleus to contribute to stimulate food intake. A case-control study (575 morbidly obese and 646 control subjects) analyzi...

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Plos Biology : Noncanonical Compensation of Zygotic X Transcriptio...

By: Hawley R. Scott

Description : When Drosophila melanogaster embryos initiate zygotic transcription around mitotic cycle 10, the dose-sensitive expression of specialized genes on the X chromosome triggers a sex-determination cascade that, among other things, compensates for differences in sex chromosome dose by hypertranscribing the single X chromosome in males. However, there is an approximately 1 hour delay between the onset of zygotic transcription and the establishment of canonical do...

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Plos Biology : Law, Responsibility, and the Brain, Volume 5

By: Dean Mobbs
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Plos Biology : High-throughput Shape Analysis Reveals Structures i...

By: Wilkinson Kevin A.

Description : Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 29-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural informati...

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Plos Biology : Open Access to Research is in the Public Interest, ...

By: Bevin P. Engelward
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Plos Biology : Shavenbaby Couples Patterning to Epidermal Cell Sha...

By: Alfonso Martinez

Description : It is well established that developmental programs act during embryogenesis to determine animal morphogenesis. How these developmental cues produce specific cell shape during morphogenesis, however, has remained elusive. We addressed this question by studying the morphological differentiation of the Drosophila epidermis, governed by a well-known circuit of regulators leading to a stereotyped pattern of smooth cells and cells forming actin-rich extensions (t...

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Plos Biology : Dynamic Control of Cell Cycle and Growth Coupling b...

By: Patrick H. O’farrell

Description : Regulation of cell proliferation has been extensively studied in cultured cell systems that are characterized by coordinated growth and cell-cycle progression and relatively uniform cell size distribution. During the development of multicellular organisms, however, growth and division can be temporally uncoupled, and the signaling pathways that regulate these growth programs are poorly understood. A good model for analyzing proliferation control in such sys...

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Plos Biology : Caenorhabditis Elegans Meets Microsporidia ; the Ne...

By: Jonathan Hodgkin
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Plos Biology : Improving Science Education for Sustainable Develop...

By: Michiel Van Eijck
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Plos Biology : Auditory Short-term Memory Behaves Like Visual Shor...

By: Shihab Shamma

Description : Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visu...

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Plos Biology : Stem Cell Promise, Interrupted ; How Long Do US Res...

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : a New Type of Proton Coordination in an F1Fo-atp Sy...

By: John Kuriyan

Description : We solved the crystal structure of a novel type of c-ring isolated from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 at 2.5 A° , revealing a cylinder with a tridecameric stoichiometry, a central pore, and an overall shape that is distinct from those reported thus far. Within the groove of two neighboring c-subunits, the conserved glutamate of the outer helix shares the proton with a bound water molecule which itself is coordinated by three other amino acids of outer helices. ...

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Plos Biology : Interaction with Phosphoinositides Confers Adaptati...

By: David E. E. Clapham

Description : Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca2þ influx following the channel opening caused a profound shift (:14-fold) of the agonist sensitivity, but did not...

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Plos Biology : Different Paths, Same Structure ; ‘‘developmental S...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Regarding the Amazing Choreography of Clathrin Coat...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Bioassay-guided Evolution of Glycosylated MacRolide...

By: Adam P. Arkin

Description : Macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin are clinically important polyketide natural products. We have engineered a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli that produces small but measurable quantities of the bioactive macrolide 6- deoxyerythromycin D. Bioassay-guided evolution of this strain led to the identification of an antibiotic-overproducing mutation in the mycarose biosynthesis and transfer pathway that was detectable via a colony-based screening a...

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Plos Biology : Partial Inhibition of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Impr...

By: Stephen O’rahilly

Description : When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (H...

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Plos Biology : Current Approaches to the Study of Movement Control...

By: Alla Katsnelson

Description : A major goal in cognitive research, of course, is to directly demonstrate hypothesized mechanisms of cognitive processes in the cellular structure and organization of the brain. Internal models are powerful concepts for understanding how the nervous system breaks down motor tasks. Psychophysical experiments such as those described above can provide a theoretical framework from which to approach neurophysiological investigation, but comparisons of neuronal f...

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Plos Biology : Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the ...

By: Gregory A. Petsko

Description : Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family membe...

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Plos Biology : High-resolution Genome-wide Dissection of the Two R...

By: Nick H. Barton

Description : Postzygotic reproductive isolation is characterized by two striking empirical patterns. The first is Haldane’s rule—the preferential inviability or sterility of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex. The second is the so-called large X effect—substitution of one species’s X chromosome for another’s has a disproportionately large effect on hybrid fitness compared to similar substitution of an autosome. Although the first rule has been well-establishe...

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