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Plos Biology : the Role of Auxin Transport in Plant Patterning Mec...

By: Richard S. Smith
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Plos Biology : Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammation ; Novel Intera...

By: Philip M. Murphy

Description : Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine...

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Plos Biology : an Acetylcholine Receptor Keeps Muscles in Balance,...

By: Rachel Jones
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Plos Biology : Strict Host-symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Gen...

By: Jonathan Eisen

Description : Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via ‘‘symbiont capsule.’’ In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited special...

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Plos Biology : Jamb and Jamc Are Essential for Vertebrate Myocyte ...

By: Peter D. Currie

Description : Cellular fusion is required in the development of several tissues, including skeletal muscle. In vertebrates, this process is poorly understood and lacks an in vivo-validated cell surface heterophilic receptor pair that is necessary for fusion. Identification of essential cell surface interactions between fusing cells is an important step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of cellular fusion. We show here that the zebrafish orthologues of JAM-B and JAM-...

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Plos Biology : Phenotypic Plasticity Opposes Species Invasions by ...

By: Michel Loreau

Description : Understanding species invasion is a central problem in ecology because invasions of exotic species severely impact ecosystems, and because invasions underlie fundamental ecological processes. However, the influence on invasions of phenotypic plasticity, a key component of many species interactions, is unknown. We present a model in which phenotypic plasticity of a resident species increases its ability to oppose invaders, and plasticity of an invader increa...

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Plos Biology : Threshold-dependent Bmp-mediated Repression ; a Mod...

By: Matthew P. Scott

Description : Subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three rows of cells along the dorsal-ventral axis by neural identity genes is a highly conserved developmental process. While neural identity genes are expressed in remarkably similar patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, previous work suggests that these patterns may be regulated by distinct upstream genetic pathways. Here we ask whether a potential conserved source of positional information provided by the BMP si...

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Plos Biology : Maternal Xnorrin, a Canonical Wnt Signaling Agonist...

By: Derek L. Stemple

Description : Dorsal–ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by b-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to bcatenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin) promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical ...

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Plos Biology : Engineering Sexless Seeds as a Path to High-yield C...

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : Many Ribosomal Protein Genes Are Cancer Genes in Ze...

By: Derek Stemple

Description : We have generated several hundred lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio), each heterozygous for a recessive embryonic lethal mutation. Since many tumor suppressor genes are recessive lethals, we screened our colony for lines that display early mortality and/or gross evidence of tumors. We identified 12 lines with elevated cancer incidence. Fish from these lines develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and in some cases also other tumor types, with modera...

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Plos Biology : Chromosomal Distribution of Pcg Proteins During Dro...

By: Oliver J. Rando

Description : Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are able to maintain the memory of silent transcriptional states of homeotic genes throughout development. In Drosophila, they form multimeric complexes that bind to specific DNA regulatory elements named PcG response elements (PREs). To date, few PREs have been identified and the chromosomal distribution of PcG proteins during development is unknown. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with genomic tiling path microar...

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Plos Biology : Quiet Down Now ; How Excitatory Neurons Inhibit One...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Fish Invasions in the World’s River Systems ; when ...

By: Fabien Leprieur

Description : Because species invasions are a principal driver of the human-induced biodiversity crisis, the identification of the major determinants of global invasions is a prerequisite for adopting sound conservation policies. Three major hypotheses, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, have been proposed to explain the establishment of non-native species : the ‘‘human activity’’ hypothesis, which argues that human activities facilitate the establishment of n...

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Plos Biology : Human Microrna Targets, Volume 2

By: James C. Carrington

Description : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with target mRNAs at specific sites to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. The specific function of most mammalian miRNAs is unknown. We have predicted target sites on the 39 untranslated regions of human gene transcripts for all currently known 218 mammalian miRNAs to facilitate focused experiments. We report about 2,000 human genes with miRNA target sites conserved in mammals and about 250 human genes conserv...

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Plos Biology : the Role of Genomics in the Identification, Predict...

By: W. Florian Fricke
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Plos Biology : Two Pi 3-kinases and One Pi 3-phosphatase Together ...

By: Barbara Conradt

Description : Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) is a signaling molecule important for many membrane trafficking events, including phagosome maturation. The level of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomes oscillates in two waves during phagosome maturation. However, the physiological significance of such oscillation remains unknown. Currently, the Class III PI 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 is regarded as the only kinase that produces PtdIns(3)P in phagosomal membranes. We report he...

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Plos Biology : Generalization of Motor Learning Depends on the His...

By: James Ashe

Description : Generalization of motor learning refers to our ability to apply what has been learned in one context to other contexts. When generalization is beneficial, it is termed transfer, and when it is detrimental, it is termed interference. Insight into the mechanism of generalization may be acquired from understanding why training transfers in some contexts but not others. However, identifying relevant contextual cues has proven surprisingly difficult, perhaps bec...

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Plos Biology : the Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Asse...

By: David M. Glover

Description : CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meio...

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Plos Biology : Human and Drosophila Cryptochromes Are Light Activa...

By: Nathalie Hoang

Description : Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However, although similar in structure to plant cryptochromes, the light-response mechanism of animal cryptochromes...

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Plos Biology : Recognition of Lyso-phospholipids by Human Natural ...

By: Vincenzo Cerundolo

Description : Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes with potent immunoregulatory properties. Recognition of selfantigens presented by CD1d molecules is an important route of NKT cell activation: however, the molecular identity of specific autoantigens that stimulate human NKT cells remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed human NKT cell recognition of CD1d cellular ligands. The most clearly antigenic species was lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC). Diacyla...

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