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Plos Biology : Identifying Genes That Help One Sex but Harm the Ot...

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : the Nise Net ; Bringing the Study of the Very Small...

By: Margaret Glass
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Plos Biology : Revealing the Poliovirus’s Path to Infection, Volume 5

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : Adult Murine Skeletal Muscle Contains Cells That Ca...

By: Kenneth R. Chien

Description : It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude...

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Plos Biology : Limbs Made to Measure, Volume 8

By: Anna Kicheva
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Plos Biology : Conserved and Variable Functions of the Re Stress R...

By: Jonathan A. Eisen

Description : Bacteria often cope with environmental stress by inducing alternative sigma (r) factors, which direct RNA polymerase to specific promoters, thereby inducing a set of genes called a regulon to combat the stress. To understand the conserved and organism-specific functions of each r, it is necessary to be able to predict their promoters, so that their regulons can be followed across species. However, the variability of promoter sequences and motif spacing make...

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Plos Biology : Dynamic Analysis of Stochastic Transcription Cycles...

By: Andre Levchenko

Description : In individual mammalian cells the expression of some genes such as prolactin is highly variable over time and has been suggested to occur in stochastic pulses. To investigate the origins of this behavior and to understand its functional relevance, we quantitatively analyzed this variability using new mathematical tools that allowed us to reconstruct dynamic transcription rates of different reporter genes controlled by identical promoters in the same living ...

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Plos Biology : Viruses’ Life History ; Towards a Mechanistic Basis...

By: Thomas Kirkwood

Description : Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints leading to trade-offs among these different traits. The main life history traits of phages—viruses that infect bacteria—are the multiplication rate in the host, the survivorship of virions in the external environment, and their mode of transmission. By comparing life history traits of 16 phages infecting th...

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Plos Biology : Α-actinin-4-mediated Fsgs ; an Inherited Kidney Dis...

By: Peter Mundel

Description : Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common pattern of renal injury, seen as both a primary disorder and as a consequence of underlying insults such as diabetes, HIV infection, and hypertension. Point mutations in the a-actinin-4 gene ACTN4 cause an autosomal dominant form of human FSGS. We characterized the biological effect of these mutations by biochemical assays, cell-based studies, and the development of a new mouse model. We found that a fra...

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Plos Biology : Insights Into How Calcium Forms Plaques in Arteries...

By: Janelle Weaver
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Plos Biology : Subcellular Localization Determines the Stability a...

By: Ben A. Barres

Description : Axons require a constant supply of the labile axon survival factor Nmnat2 from their cell bodies to avoid spontaneous axon degeneration. Here we investigate the mechanism of fast axonal transport of Nmnat2 and its site of action for axon maintenance. Using dual-colour live-cell imaging of axonal transport in SCG primary culture neurons, we find that Nmnat2 is bidirectionally trafficked in axons together with markers of the trans-Golgi network and synaptic v...

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Plos Biology : Inherent Dynamics of the Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1...

By: Richard W. Aldrich

Description : The acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) is a key receptor for extracellular protons. Although numerous structural and functional studies have been performed on this channel, the structural dynamics underlying the gating mechanism remains unknown. We used normal mode analysis, mutagenesis, and electrophysiological methods to explore the relationship between the inherent dynamics of ASIC1 and its gating mechanism. Here we show that a series of collective motio...

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Plos Biology : Stochastic E2F Activation and Reconciliation of Phe...

By: Andre Levchenko

Description : The transition of the mammalian cell from quiescence to proliferation is a highly variable process. Over the last four decades, two lines of apparently contradictory, phenomenological models have been proposed to account for such temporal variability. These include various forms of the transition probability (TP) model and the growth control (GC) model, which lack mechanistic details. The GC model was further proposed as an alternative explanation for the c...

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Plos Biology : Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles, Volume 5

By: Charles F. Stevens

Description : Synaptic vesicles dock to the plasma membrane at synapses to facilitate rapid exocytosis. Docking was originally proposed to require the soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins: however, perturbation studies suggested that docking was independent of the SNARE proteins. We now find that the SNARE protein syntaxin is required for docking of all vesicles at synapses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The acti...

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Plos Biology : Integration of Canonical and Noncanonical Wnt Signa...

By: Christof Niehrs

Description : Patterning the neuroectoderm along the anterior–posterior (AP) axis is a critical event in the early development of deuterostome embryos. However, the mechanisms that regulate the specification and patterning of the neuroectoderm are incompletely understood. Remarkably, the anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) of the deuterostome sea urchin embryo expresses many of the same transcription factors and secreted modulators of Wnt signaling, as does the early vertebrate...

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Plos Biology : Natural and Experimental Infection of Caenorhabditi...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define hostviral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel R...

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Plos Biology : the Soup in My Fly ; Evolution, Form and Function o...

By: Tracey Chapman
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Plos Biology : Self-organization of Dynein Motors Generates Meioti...

By: Manfred Schliwa

Description : Meiotic nuclear oscillations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are crucial for proper chromosome pairing and recombination. We report a mechanism of these oscillations on the basis of collective behavior of dynein motors linking the cell cortex and dynamic microtubules that extend from the spindle pole body in opposite directions. By combining quantitative live cell imaging and laser ablation with a theoretical description, we show that dynein ...

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Plos Biology : Model Selection and the Molecular Clock, Volume 4

By: Oliver G. Pybus
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Plos Biology : Amyloid Peptide Toxicity in an Animal Model of Alzh...

By: Liza Gross
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