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Plos Biology : Drosophila Neurotrophins Reveal a Common Mechanism ...

By: Bangfu Zhu

Description : Neurotrophic interactions occur in Drosophila, but to date, no neurotrophic factor had been found. Neurotrophins are the main vertebrate secreted signalling molecules that link nervous system structure and function : they regulate neuronal survival, targeting, synaptic plasticity, memory and cognition. We have identified a neurotrophic factor in flies, Drosophila Neurotrophin (DNT1), structurally related to all known neurotrophins and highly conserved in in...

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Plos Biology : Protein Kinase Activity of Phosphoinositide 3-kinas...

By: Tony Hunter

Description : The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphory...

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Plos Biology : an Enzyme-catalyzed Multistep Dna Refolding Mechani...

By: Juli Feigon

Description : Hairpin telomeres of bacterial linear chromosomes are generated by a DNA cutting–rejoining enzyme protelomerase. Protelomerase resolves a concatenated dimer of chromosomes as the last step of chromosome replication, converting a palindromic DNA sequence at the junctions between chromosomes into covalently closed hairpins. The mechanism by which protelomerase transforms a duplex DNA substrate into the hairpin telomeres remains largely unknown. We report here...

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Plos Biology : Hyphal Development in Candida Albicans Requires Two...

By: Joseph Heitman

Description : Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. For Candida albicans, the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans, morphological plasticity is its defining feature and is critical for its pathogenesis. Unlike other fungal pathogens that exist primarily in either yeast or hyphal forms, C. albicans is able to switch reversibly between yeast and hyphal growth forms in response to environmental cues. Although many regulators have been found in...

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Plos Biology : a Transcriptional Profile of Aging in the Human Kid...

By: Thomas Kirkwood

Description : In this study, we found 985 genes that change expression in the cortex and the medulla of the kidney with age. Some of the genes whose transcripts increase in abundance with age are known to be specifically expressed in immune cells, suggesting that immune surveillance or inflammation increases with age. The age-regulated genes show a similar aging profile in the cortex and the medulla, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for aging. Expression profiles...

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Plos Biology : the Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Asse...

By: David M. Glover

Description : CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meio...

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Plos Biology : Melanopsin Ganglion Cells ; a Different Way of Seei...

By: Caitlin Sedwick
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Plos Biology : an Endoribonuclease Functionally Linked to Perinucl...

By: Anita Corbett

Description : Nuclear mRNA export is a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression, which is in yeast coupled to cotranscriptional messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) assembly and surveillance. Several surveillance systems that monitor nuclear mRNP biogenesis and export have been described, but the mechanism by which the improper mRNPs are recognized and eliminated remains poorly understood. Here we report that the conserved PIN domain protein Swt1 is an RNA endon...

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Plos Biology : Plant Virus Biodiversity and Ecology, Volume 4

By: Jonathan D. Wren
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Plos Biology : People Gather Only the Information They Need to Mak...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : New Signaling Chemicals Spur Worms to Seek Company,...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Global Reorganization of Replication Domains During...

By: Ichiro Hiratani

Description : DNA replication in mammals is regulated via the coordinate firing of clusters of replicons that duplicate megabasesized chromosome segments at specific times during S-phase. Cytogenetic studies show that these ‘‘replicon clusters’’ coalesce as subchromosomal units that persist through multiple cell generations, but the molecular boundaries of such units have remained elusive. Moreover, the extent to which changes in replication timing occur during different...

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Plos Biology : Hairy Transcriptional Repression Targets and Cofact...

By: Michael Levine

Description : Members of the widely conserved Hairy/Enhancer of split family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix repressors are essential for proper Drosophila and vertebrate development and are misregulated in many cancers. While a major step forward in understanding the molecular mechanism(s) surrounding Hairy-mediated repression was made with the identification of Groucho, Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP), and Drosophila silent information regulator 2 (dSir2) as Ha...

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Plos Biology : Horizontal Transfer of a Plant Transposon, Volume 4

By: Robert Martienssen

Description : The majority of well-documented cases of horizontal transfer between higher eukaryotes involve the movement of transposable elements between animals. Surprisingly, although plant genomes often contain vast numbers of these mobile genetic elements, no evidence of horizontal transfer of a nuclear-encoded transposon between plant species has been detected to date. The most mutagenic known plant transposable element system is the Mutator system in maize. Mu-lik...

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Plos Biology : Senescence-associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal C...

By: Jean-philippe Coppe

Description : Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) d...

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Plos Biology : Location Matters ; How Spatial Positioning of Regul...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Taking the Stem Cell Debate to the Public, Volume 2

By: Leonard I. Zon
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Plos Biology : Bioethics Grows Up, Volume 6

By: Arthur Caplan
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Plos Biology : Playing Tag with a Bacterial Stress Response, Volume 9

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Intermolecular Failure of L-type CA2Þ Channel and R...

By: Michael Berridge

Description : Pressure overload–induced hypertrophy is a key step leading to heart failure. The Ca2þ-induced Ca2þ release (CICR) process that governs cardiac contractility is defective in hypertrophy/heart failure, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the intermolecular aspects of CICR during hypertrophy, we utilized loose-patch confocal imaging to visualize the signaling between a single L-type Ca2þ channel (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in aort...

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