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Plos Biology : Understanding the Web of Life ; the Birds, the Bees...

By: Jason M. Tylianakis
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Plos Biology : Gene Recruitment of the Activated Ino1 Locus to the...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : The spatial arrangement of chromatin within the nucleus can affect reactions that occur on the DNA and is likely to be regulated. Here we show that activation of INO1 occurs at the nuclear membrane and requires the integral membrane protein Scs2. Scs2 antagonizes the action of the transcriptional repressor Opi1 under conditions that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, in turn, activate INO1. Whereas repressed INO1 localizes throughout the nucleo...

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Plos Biology : Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting...

By: Frans De Waal

Description : Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as ‘‘intentional’’ communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whethe...

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Plos Biology : You Aren’t Always What You Eat, Volume 8

By: Robin Meadows
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Plos Biology : a Rho Scaffold Integrates the Secretory System with...

By: Ottoline Leyser

Description : Development in multicellular organisms depends on the ability of individual cells to coordinate their behavior by means of small signaling molecules to form correctly patterned tissues. In plants, a unique mechanism of directional transport of the signaling molecule auxin between cells connects cell polarity and tissue patterning and thus is required for many aspects of plant development. Direction of auxin flow is determined by polar subcellular localizati...

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Plos Biology : Dna-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibits Aidinduced An...

By: David Nemazee

Description : Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent hypermutation of Ig V(D)J rearrangements and Ig S regions, respectively, in activated B cells. AID deaminates deoxycytidine bases in Ig genes, converting them into deoxyuridines. In V(D)J regions, subsequent excision of the deaminated bases by uracil-DNA glycosylase, or by mismatch repair, leads to further point mutation or gene conversion, d...

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Plos Biology : Evolution for the Next Generation, Volume 2

By: Masakado Kawata
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Plos Biology : the Telomeric Protein Trf2 Binds the Atm Kinase and...

By: Steve Elledge

Description : The telomeric protein TRF2 is required to prevent mammalian telomeres from activating DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that overexpression of TRF2 affects the response of the ATM kinase to DNA damage. Overexpression of TRF2 abrogated the cell cycle arrest after ionizing radiation and diminished several other readouts of the DNA damage response, including phosphorylation of Nbs1, induction of p53, and upregulation of p53 targets. TRF2 inhibited autophosp...

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Plos Biology : Chromosome Cohesion ; a Cycle of Holding Together a...

By: Jennifer Gerton
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Plos Biology : Inclusion of Residual Tissue in Biobanks ; Opt-in o...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : Residual samples are an important source of tissue for biobanks. They refer to leftover tissue that is obtained in the course of clinical care. Residual samples can be included through an opt-in method— that is, a person explicitly expresses consent to include residual tissue—or an opt-out method—that is, the tissue is stored unless a person explicitly refuses. At the moment there is a renewed interest in the appropriatemethod for the inclusion of residual ...

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Plos Biology : Gene Expression Signature of Fibroblast Serum Respo...

By: Edison T. Liu

Description : Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the...

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Plos Biology : Mechanistic Insights Revealed by the Crystal Struct...

By: Ann Stock

Description : Two-component systems (TCSs) are important for the adaptation and survival of bacteria and fungi under stress conditions. A TCS is often composed of a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (SK) and a response regulator (RR), which are relayed through sequential phosphorylation steps. However, the mechanism for how an SK is switched on in response to environmental stimuli remains obscure. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complete cytoplasmic porti...

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Plos Biology : a Pacific Culture Among Wild Baboons ; Its Emergenc...

By: Frans B. M. De Waal

Description : Reports exist of transmission of culture in nonhuman primates. We examine this in a troop of savanna baboons studied since 1978. During the mid-1980s, half of the males died from tuberculosis: because of circumstances of the outbreak, it was more aggressive males who died, leaving a cohort of atypically unaggressive survivors. A decade later, these behavioral patterns persisted. Males leave their natal troops at adolescence: by the mid-1990s, no males remai...

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Plos Biology : a Tale of Two Perils, Volume 11

By: Alan S. Kolok

Description : In the field of popular science books, science is often presented in an ivorytower fashion : science strides boldly forward while all other human pursuits, from personal to familial to professional, take a backseat. If only it were so! In reality, the scientific pursuit is, at best, a juggling act where the pursuit of knowledge has to compete with other, sometimes mundane and frustrating, personal and professional responsibilities.

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Plos Biology : the Ndr, Volume 6

By: Emily Mazanka

Description : Cell fate can be determined by asymmetric segregation of gene expression regulators. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Ace2 accumulates specifically in the daughter cell nucleus, where it drives transcription of genes that are not expressed in the mother cell. The NDR/LATS family protein kinase Cbk1 is required for Ace2 segregation and function. Using peptide scanning arrays, we determined Cbk19s phosphorylation consens...

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Plos Biology : Membrane Potential-dependent Modulation of Recurren...

By: Alberto Bacci

Description : Dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition is crucial for network stability and cortical processing, but it is unclear how this balance is achieved at different membrane potentials (Vm) of cortical neurons, as found during persistent activity or slow Vm oscillation. Here we report that a Vm-dependent modulation of recurrent inhibition between pyramidal cells (PCs) contributes to the excitation-inhibition balance. Whole-cell recording from paired layer-5 P...

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Plos Biology : the Interscutularis Muscle Connectome, Volume 7

By: Cori I. Bargmann

Description : The complete connectional map (connectome) of a neural circuit is essential for understanding its structure and function. Such maps have only been obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans. As an attempt at solving mammalian circuits, we reconstructed the connectomes of six interscutularis muscles from adult transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in all motor axons. The reconstruction revealed several organizational principles of the neuromuscular circuit...

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Plos Biology : Organization of Mammalian, Volume 5

By: Petko M. Petkov
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Plos Biology : Mechanism of Neuroprotective Mitochondrial Remodeli...

By: Douglas R. Green

Description : Mitochondrial shape is determined by fission and fusion reactions catalyzed by large GTPases of the dynamin family, mutation of which can cause neurological dysfunction. While fission-inducing protein phosphatases have been identified, the identity of opposing kinase signaling complexes has remained elusive. We report here that in both neurons and nonneuronal cells, cAMP elevation and expression of an outer-mitochondrial membrane (OMM) targeted form of the ...

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Plos Biology : Network Features of the Mammalian Circadian Clock, ...

By: Ueli Schibler

Description : The mammalian circadian clock is a cell-autonomous system that drives oscillations in behavior and physiology in anticipation of daily environmental change. To assess the robustness of a human molecular clock, we systematically depleted known clock components and observed that circadian oscillations are maintained over a wide range of disruptions. We developed a novel strategy termed Gene Dosage Network Analysis (GDNA) in which small interfering RNA (siRNA)...

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