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Plos Biology : Sirt1 Regulates Hiv Transcription Via Tat Deacetyla...

By: Michael Emerman

Description : The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein is acetylated by the transcriptional coactivator p300, a necessary step in Tat-mediated transactivation. We report here that Tat is deacetylated by human sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent class III protein deacetylase in vitro and in vivo. Tat and SIRT1 coimmunoprecipitate and synergistically activate the HIV promoter. Conversely, knockdown of SIRT1 via small interfering RNAs ...

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Plos Biology : Revealing the Poliovirus’s Path to Infection, Volume 5

By: Liza Gross
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Plos Biology : the Next Step for Motor Proteins, Volume 9

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Elongated Polyproline Motifs Facilitate Enamel Evol...

By: William Bonass

Description : Vertebrate body designs rely on hydroxyapatite as the principal mineral component of relatively light-weight, articulated endoskeletons and sophisticated tooth-bearing jaws, facilitating rapid movement and efficient predation. Biological mineralization and skeletal growth are frequently accomplished through proteins containing polyproline repeat elements. Through their well-defined yet mobile and flexible structure polyproline-rich proteins control mineral ...

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Plos Biology : Stochastic Mrna Synthesis in Mammalian Cells, Volume 4

By: Ueli Schibler

Description : Individual cells in genetically homogeneous populations have been found to express different numbers of molecules of specific proteins. We investigated the origins of these variations in mammalian cells by counting individual molecules of mRNA produced from a reporter gene that was stably integrated into the cell’s genome. We found that there are massive variations in the number of mRNA molecules present in each cell. These variations occur because mRNAs ar...

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Plos Biology : Filarial Parasites Develop Faster and Reproduce Ear...

By: David S. Schneider

Description : Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependant development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evo...

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Plos Biology : the Third Age of Phage, Volume 3

By: Nicholas H. Mann
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Plos Biology : Male or Female the Answer Depends on when You Ask, ...

By: Helen K. Salz
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Plos Biology : Accelerated Recruitment of New Brain Development Ge...

By: Kenneth H. Wolfe

Description : How the human brain evolved has attracted tremendous interests for decades. Motivated by case studies of primatespecific genes implicated in brain function, we examined whether or not the young genes, those emerging genome-wide in the lineages specific to the primates or rodents, showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of transcription compared to old genes, which had existed before primate and rodent split. We found consistent patterns across differe...

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Plos Biology : Assembly of the Murine Leukemia Virus is Directed T...

By: Michael Emerman

Description : We have investigated the underlying mechanism by which direct cell–cell contact enhances the efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Applying 4D imaging to a model retrovirus, the murine leukemia virus, we directly monitor and quantify sequential assembly, release, and transmission events for individual viral particles as they happen in living cells. We demonstrate that de novo assembly is highly polarized towards zones of cell–cell contact...

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Plos Biology : Caenorhabditis Elegans Hcf-1 Functions in Longevity...

By: Atsushi Ebata

Description : The transcription factor DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) is a critical longevity determinant in diverse organisms, however the molecular basis of how its transcriptional activity is regulated remains largely unknown. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) represents a new longevity modulator and functions as a negative regulator of DAF-16. In C. elegans, hcf-1 inactivation caused a daf-16-dependent lifespan extension of...

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Plos Biology : the Implausibility of Metabolic Cycles on the Prebi...

By: Leslie E. Orgel
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Plos Biology : Gene Banks Pay Big Dividends to Agriculture, the En...

By: R. C. Johnson
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Plos Biology : Gene-environment Interaction in Yeast Gene Expressi...

By: Erin N. Smith

Description : The effects of genetic variants on phenotypic traits often depend on environmental and physiological conditions, but such gene–environment interactions are poorly understood. Recently developed approaches that treat transcript abundances of thousands of genes as quantitative traits offer the opportunity to broadly characterize the architecture of gene–environment interactions. We examined the genetic and molecular basis of variation in gene expression betwe...

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Plos Biology : All for All, Volume 4

By: John Sulston
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Plos Biology : How a Blood Cell Intracellular Signal Keeps Blood F...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Structure of the Mg-chelatase Cofactor Gun4 Reveals...

By: Jeffrey Dangl

Description : In plants, the accumulation of the chlorophyll precursor Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto) in the plastid regulates the expression of a number of nuclear genes with functions related to photosynthesis. Analysis of the plastid-to-nucleus signaling activity of Mg-Proto in Arabidopsis thaliana led to the discovery of GUN4, a novel porphyrin-binding protein that also dramatically enhances the activity of Mg-chelatase, the enzyme that synthesizes Mg-Proto. GUN4 ma...

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Plos Biology : Guidelines for Negotiating Scientifi C Collaboratio...

By: Neil R. Smalheiser
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Plos Biology : Capturing Hammerhead Ribozyme Structures in Action ...

By: Young-in Chi

Description : PDZ domains are protein–protein interaction modules that recognize specific C-terminal sequences to assemble protein complexes in multicellular organisms. By scanning billions of random peptides, we accurately map binding specificity for approximately half of the over 330 PDZ domains in the human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. The domains recognize features of the last seven ligand positions, and we find 16 distinct specificity classes conserved from...

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Plos Biology : Does Mutation Rate Depend on Itself, Volume 6

By: Charles F. Baer
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