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Plos One : Abaa Regulates Conidiogenesis in the Ascomycete Fungus ...

By: Sung-hwan Yun

Description : Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. Both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in F. graminearum. Since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum based on the framework previously descr...

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Plos One : Genetic Variations in Smad7 Are Associated with Colorec...

By: Ewart Amanda Toland

Description : SMAD7 SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. There was evidence suggesting that the association between rs12953717 and colorectal cancer risk may be modified by factors such as smoking and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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Plos One : Applying Reversible Mutations of Nodulation and Nitroge...

By: Daniel Ballhorn

Description : Mutualisms are common in nature, though these symbioses can be quite permeable to cheaters in situations where one individual parasitizes the other by discontinuing cooperation yet still exploits the benefits of the partnership. In the Rhizobium-legume system, there are two separate contexts, namely nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes, by which resident Rhizobium individuals can benefit by cheating. Here, we constructed reversible and irreversible mu...

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Plos One : Predicting Daily Physical Activity in Patients with Chr...

By: Rory Edward Morty

Description : In patients with COPD simple tests such as the 6-Minute Walk Test, the Sit-to-Stand Test and the Zutphen Physical Activity Questionnaire cannot be used to reliably predict physical inactivity.

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Plos One : C. Elegansring Finger Protein Rnf-113 is Involved in In...

By: Fenfei Leng

Description : The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway recognizes interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) and contributes to their conversion into double-strand DNA breaks, which can be repaired by homologous recombination. Seven orthologs of the 15 proteins associated with Fanconi anemia are functionally conserved in the model organism C. elegans. Here we report that RNF-113, a ubiquitin ligase, is required for RAD-51 focus formation after inducing ICLs in C. elegans. However, the for...

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Plos One : Computational Study of Synthetic Agonist Ligands of Ion...

By: Roland Seifert

Description : Neurological glutamate receptors are among the most important and intensely studied protein ligand binding systems in humans. They are crucial for the functioning of the central nervous system and involved in a variety of pathologies. Apart from the neurotransmitter glutamate, several artificial, agonistic and antagonistic ligands are known. Of particular interest here are novel photoswitchable agonists that would open the field of optogenetics to glutamate...

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Plos One : Awareness of and Willingness to Use Oral Pre-exposure P...

By: Chiyu Zhang

Description : Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among potential users.

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Plos One : Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora-like Organisms...

By: Patrick C.Y. Woo

Description : Cyclospora spp. have been identified as one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing protracted diarrhea in animals and human beings. To determine the Cyclospora species in the non-human primate Rhinopithecus roxellanae, a total of 71 fecal samples from 19 endangered snub-nosed monkeys in Shaanxi province were collected and examined using Sheater’s sugar flotation technique and by sequencing the fragments of 18S rDNA. Only two Cyclospora isolates ...

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Plos One : Binding, Conformational Transition and Dimerization of ...

By: Jie Zheng

Description : Interactions of amyloid-b (Ab) with neuronal membrane are associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ganglioside GM1 has been shown to promote the structural conversion of Ab and increase the rate of peptide aggregation: but the exact nature of interaction driving theses processes remains to be explored. In this work, we have carried out atomistic-scale computer simulations (totaling 2.65 ms) to investigate the behavior of Ab monomer and d...

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Plos One : Antidepressant-like Effects of Erythropoietin ; a Focus...

By: Judith Homberg

Description : Depression is a chronic and debilitating condition with a significant degree of relapse and treatment resistance that could stem, at least in part, from disturbances of neuroplasticity. This has led to an increased focus on treatment strategies that target brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. In the current study we aimed to assess whether erythropoietin (EPO) would have antidepressant-like effects given its ...

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Plos One : Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships...

By: Kerrie Swadling

Description : Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among ma...

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Plos One : Effects of Texture Component Orientation on Orientation...

By: Samuel G. Solomon

Description : In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped ...

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Plos One : Individual Variation in Influenza a Virus Infection His...

By: Justin David Brown

Description : Wild dabbling ducks (genus Anas) are the main reservoir for influenza A virus (IAV) in the Northern Hemisphere. Current understanding of disease dynamics and epidemiology in this virus-host system has primarily been based on populationlevel surveillance studies and infection experiments conducted in laboratory settings. Using a combined experimentalnatural approach with wild-strain captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we monitored individual IAV infection...

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Plos One : Essential Role of Nk Cells in Igg Therapy for Experimen...

By: Michael Platten

Description : Intravenous immunoglobulin has long been used in treating autoimmune diseases, although mechanisms remain uncertain. Activating Fcc receptors are receptors of IgG and reported to be essential in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Therefore, we hypothesized natural killer (NK) cells, which express abundant activating Fcc receptors, are the potential cellular target. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we demonstrated that IgG suppress...

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Plos One : Inhibiting Her3-mediated Tumor Cell Growth with Affibod...

By: Zhaozhong Han

Description : The HER3 receptor is implicated in the progression of various cancers as well as in resistance to several currently used drugs, and is hence a potential target for development of new therapies. We have previously generated Affibody molecules that inhibit heregulin-induced signaling of the HER3 pathways. The aim of this study was to improve the affinity of the binders to hopefully increase receptor inhibition efficacy and enable a high receptor-mediated upta...

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Plos One : Parallel Screening of Wild-type and Drug-resistant Targ...

By: Yue Wang

Description : Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA) drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR) influenza vi...

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Plos One : Sirtuin 1 Facilitates Generation of Induced Pluripotent...

By: Aditya Bhushan Pant

Description : Forced-expression of transcription factors can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Recent studies show that the reprogramming efficiency can be improved by inclusion of small molecules that regulate chromatin modifying enzymes. We report here that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases, is involved in iPSC formation. By using an efficient mouse secondary fibroblast reprogrammi...

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Plos One : Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Metabolic Co...

By: Thiruma V. Arumugam

Description : Physical activity levels are reduced immediately post-stroke and remain below recommended levels for health and wellbeing at the three and six month time points. Clinicians should explore methods to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour in both the acute and later stages following stroke.

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Plos One : Relationships Between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bac...

By: Jack Anthony Gilbert

Description : Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type...

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Plos One : Health-related Quality of Life Among Children with Recu...

By: Harry Zhang

Description : The current data demonstrated that RRTIs were associated with lower HRQOL in both children and their caregivers and negatively influenced family functioning. In addition, caregivers’ social characteristics also significantly affected HRQOL in children with RRTIs.

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