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Plos One : Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Using High Papaverin...

By: Turgay Unver

Description : The benzylisoquinoline alkaloid papaverine, synthesized in low amount in most of the opium poppy varieties of Papaver somniferum, is used as a vasodilator muscle relaxant and antispasmodic. Papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial as two different routes utilizing either (S)-coclaurine or (S)-reticuline have been proposed with uncharacterized intermediate steps. In an attempt to elucidate papaverine biosynthesis and identify putative genes involved in ...

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Plos One : Marmap ; a Package for Importing, Plotting and Analyzin...

By: Guy J.-p. Schumann

Description : In this communication we introduce marmap, a package designed for downloading, plotting and manipulating bathymetric and topographic data in R. marmap can query the ETOPO1 bathymetry and topography database hosted by the NOAA, use simple latitude-longitude-depth data in ascii format, and take advantage of the advanced plotting tools available in R to build publication-quality bathymetric maps. Functions to query data (bathymetry, sampling information…) are ...

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Plos One : Can Insects Develop Resistance to Insect Pathogenic Fun...

By: François Leulier

Description : Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25th generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies ...

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Plos One : Incidence of Spinal Perineurial Tarlov Cysts Among East...

By: Isaac Yang

Description : The spinal perineurial cyst (Tarlov) is a dilatation between the perineurium and endoneurium of spinal nerve roots, located at level of the spinal ganglion and filled with cerebrospinal fluid but without communication with the perineurial subarachnoid space. The aim of the study was to evaluate it incidence among East-European patients. The retrospective data collected during various magnetic resonance spinal examinations and stored on the picture archiving...

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Plos One : Fusion of Zmynd8 and Rela Genes in Acute Erythroid Leuk...

By: Pierre-antoine Defossez

Description : Acute erythroid leukemia was diagnosed in a 4-month-old boy. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow (BM) cells showed a t(11:20)(p11:q11) translocation. RNA extracted from the BM was sequenced and analyzed for fusion transcripts using the software FusionMap. A ZMYND8-RELA fusion was ranked first. RT-PCR and direct sequencing verified the presence of an in frame ZMYND8-RELA chimeric transcript. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the ZMYND8-RELA was ...

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Plos One : a Single Bout of Exercise Improves Motor Memory, Volume 7

By: Corrado Sinigaglia

Description : Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task e...

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Plos One : Scfv Anti-heparan Sulfate Antibodies Unexpectedly Activ...

By: Ramani Ramchandran

Description : Tumor development requires angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies have been introduced in the treatment of cancer. In this context, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) emerge as interesting targets, owing to their function as co-receptors of major, pro-angiogenic factors. Accordingly, previous studies have suggested anti-tumor effects of heparin, i.e. oversulfated HS, and various heparin mimetics: however, a significant drawback is their unspecific me...

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Plos One : Early-onset Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Adults R...

By: Brad Spellberg

Description : Purpose : The optimal treatment duration for ventilator-associated pneumonia is based on one study dealing with lateonset of the condition. Shortening the length of antibiotic treatment remains a major prevention factor for the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. Objective : To demonstrate that 2 different antibiotic treatment durations (8 versus 15 days) are equivalent in terms of clinical cure for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia. Methods : R...

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Plos One : Comparative Demography of an At-risk African Elephant P...

By: Matt Hayward

Description : Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were s...

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Plos One : Scale-free Brain Quartet ; Artistic Filtering of Multi-...

By: Randen Lee Patterson

Description : To listen to the brain activities as a piece of music, we proposed the scale-free brainwave music (SFBM) technology, which translated scalp EEGs into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In the present study, the methodology was extended for deriving a quartet from multi-channel EEGs with artistic beat and tonality filtering. EEG data from multiple electrodes were first translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively. Then, the...

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Plos One : Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Tumor Xen...

By: Sumitra Deb

Description : ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and provided a...

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Plos One : Learning by Observation ; Insights from Williams Syndro...

By: Tricia A. Thornton-wells

Description : Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer’s acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused...

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Plos One : Cellular Responses of Candida Albicans to Phagocytosis ...

By: Oscar Zaragoza

Description : Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starva...

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Plos One : Erbb2 Receptor Over-expression Improves Post- Traumatic...

By: Guy Tear

Description : In a transgenic mice (BALB-neuT) over-expressing ErbB2 receptor, we investigated the adult mouse median nerve in physiological and pathological conditions. Results showed that, in physiological conditions, the grip function controlled by the median nerve in BALB-neuT mice was similar to wild-type (BALB/c). Stereological assessment of ErbB2-overexpressing intact nerves revealed no difference in number and size of myelinated fibers compared to wild-type mice....

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Plos One : Large-scale in Vitro Expansion of Polyclonal Human Swit...

By: Jagadeesh Bayry

Description : Polyclonal preparations of therapeutic immunoglobulins, namely intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), are essential in the treatment of immunodeficiency and are increasingly used for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Currently, patients’ accessibility to IVIg depends exclusively upon volunteer blood donations followed by the fractionation of pooled human plasma obtained from thousands of individuals. Presently, there are no in vitro cell c...

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Plos One : Metabolic Adaption of Ethanol-tolerant Clostridium Ther...

By: Valerie De Crécy-lagard

Description : Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v)...

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Plos One : Oleanolic Acid ; a Novel Cardioprotective Agent That Bl...

By: Rakesh Kukreja

Description : Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-...

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Plos One : Sequencing of Candidate Chromosome Instability Genes in...

By: Todd W. Miller

Description : Most endometrial cancers can be classified histologically as endometrioid, serous, or clear cell. Non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (NEECs: serous and clear cell) are the most clinically aggressive of the three major histotypes and are characterized by aneuploidy, a feature of chromosome instability. The genetic alterations that underlie chromosome instability in endometrial cancer are poorly understood. In the present study, we used Sanger sequencing to...

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Plos One : Systematic Analysis of the Physiological Importance of ...

By: Brian D. McCabe

Description : Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that control the post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin and in turn regulate diverse cellular pathways. Despite a growing understanding of DUB biology at the structural and molecular level, little is known about the physiological importance of most DUBs. Here, we systematically identify DUBs encoded by the genome of Drosophila melanogaster and examine their physiological importance in vivo. Thr...

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Plos One : Variability Within the 10-year Pollen Rain of a Seasona...

By: Lee A. Newsom

Description : Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due...

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