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Plos One : Nuclear Import of Ubl-domain Protein Mdy2 is Required f...

By: Mick F. Tuite

Description : Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (UBL) proteins regulate a diverse array of cellular pathways through covalent as well as non-covalent interactions with target proteins. Yeast protein Mdy2 (Get5) and its human homolog GdX (Ubl4a) belong to the class of UBL proteins which do not form conjugates with other proteins. Mdy2 is required for cell survival under heat stress and for efficient mating. As part of a complex with Sgt2 and Get4 it has been implicated in...

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Plos One : Evidence Against a Role for the Jil-1 Kinase in H3S28 P...

By: Barbara Bardoni

Description : JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling phosphorylation of histone H3S10 and has been demonstrated to function to counteract heterochromatization and gene silencing. However, an alternative model has been proposed in which JIL-1 is required for transcription to occur, additionally phosphorylates H3S28, and recruits 14-3-3 to active genes. Since these findings are incompatible with our previous demonstration that there are robust levels of transcription in the...

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Plos One : Metal Binding is Critical for the Folding and Function ...

By: Young-hwa Song

Description : Lmb is a 34 kDa laminin binding surface adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae. The structure of Lmb reported by us recently has shown that it consists of a metal binding crevice, in which a zinc ion is coordinated to three highly conserved histidines. To elucidate the structural and functional significance of the metal ion in Lmb, these histidines have been mutated to alanine and single, double and triple mutants were generated. These mutations resulted in in...

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Plos One : Blunted Il17, Volume 7

By: Douglas F. Nixon

Description : Background : Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells producing the cytokine IL17 (Th17 cells), may represent a highly susceptible target for HIV infection aft...

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Plos One : Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist Ly3792...

By: Jean-luc Gaiarsa

Description : Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists have emerged as potential treatment drugs for schizophrenia and other neurological disorders, whereas the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of LY379268 (LY37) on the expression and trafficking of the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 in prefrontal neurons. We show that LY37 significantly increased the surface and ...

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Plos One : Fgf21 Can Be Mimicked in Vitro and in Vivo by a Novel A...

By: Franco Folli

Description : The endocrine hormone FGF21 has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic for treating diabetes and obesity. As an alternative to the native cytokine, we generated bispecific Avimer polypeptides that bind with high affinity and specificity to one of the receptor and coreceptor pairs used by FGF21, FGFR1c and b-Klotho. These Avimers exhibit FGF21-like activity in in vitro assays with potency greater than FGF21. In a study conducted in obese ...

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Plos One : Light-intensity Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic B...

By: Stefan Kiechl

Description : Time spent in low light-intensity physical activity and high light-intensity physical activity had some favorable associations with biomarkers. Consistent with current physical activity recommendations for adolescents, moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity had favorable associations with many cardiometabolic biomarkers. While increasing MVPA should still be a public health priority, further studies are needed to identify dose-response relationships for l...

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Plos One : Impact of Procedure Volumes and Focused Practice on Sho...

By: Antonio Moschetta

Description : The present study adds evidence in support of the notion that patients with CC undergoing surgery at highvolume and focused surgical units experience better short-term outcomes.

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Plos One : Disparities in Oral Cancer Survival Among Mentally Ill ...

By: Kevin Robert Kozak

Description : Oral cancer patients with mental illness were less likely to undergo surgery with or without adjuvant therapy than those without mental illness. Patients with mental illness have a poor prognosis compared to those without mental illness. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

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Plos One : Sex Differences in Colorectal Cancer Survival ; Populat...

By: Hiromu Suzuki

Description : Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is considerably higher in men compared to women: however, there is inconclusive evidence of sex differences in CRC prognosis. We aimed to assess and explain sex differences in 5-year relative survival using standard and model-based period analysis among 164,996 patients diagnosed with CRC from 1997 to 2006 and reported to 11 German cancer registries covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Age-adjusted 5-year relative...

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Plos One : Effects of an Ecosystem Engineer on Belowground Movemen...

By: Jordi Moya-larano

Description : Ecosystem engineers affect other species by changing physical environments. Such changes may influence movement of organisms, particularly belowground where soil permeability can restrict dispersal. We investigated whether earthworms, iconic ecosystem engineers, influence microarthropod movement. Our experiment tested whether movement is affected by tunnels (i.e., burrows), earthworm excreta (mucus, castings), or earthworms themselves. Earthworm burrows for...

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Plos One : Clonal Expansion Within Pneumococcal Serotype 6C After ...

By: Eliane Namie Miyaji

Description : Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive infections, primarily at the extremes of life. A seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is used to protect against invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Within three years of PCV7 introduction, we observed a fourfold increase in serotype 6C carriage, predominantly due to a single clone. We determined the wholegenome sequences of nineteen S. pneumoniae serotype 6C isolates, from both carriage (n = 15) and disease ...

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Plos One : Transcriptional Profiling of Human Monocytes Identifies...

By: Masataka Kuwana

Description : Local inflammatory responses are characterized by the recruitment of circulating leukocytes from the blood to sites of inflammation, a process requiring the directed migration of leukocytes across the vessel wall and hence a penetration of the endothelial lining. To identify underlying signalling events and novel factors involved in these processes we screened for genes differentially expressed in human monocytes following their adhesion to and passage thro...

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Plos One : Randomized, Single Blind, Controlled Trial to Evaluate ...

By: Ray Borrow

Description : Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal diseases but may have poor response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). It may be possible to enhance immunogenicity by priming with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPnC) and boosting with PPV 1 year later. In a randomized single-blind, controlled study, adult recipients of renal transplants received either 7nPVC or PPV followed by PPV 1 y...

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Plos One : in Vivo Messenger Rna Introduction Into the Central Ner...

By: Maria Gasset

Description : Messenger RNA (mRNA) introduction is a promising approach to produce therapeutic proteins and peptides without any risk of insertion mutagenesis into the host genome. However, it is difficult to introduce mRNA in vivo mainly because of the instability of mRNA under physiological conditions and its strong immunogenicity through the recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We used a novel carrier based on self-assembly of a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyami...

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Plos One : Overexpression of Talea Gene from Tamarix Androssowii I...

By: M. Lucrecia Alvarez

Description : Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarix androssowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra) via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (R...

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Plos One : Efficient Sampling in Fragment-based Protein Structure ...

By: Yang Zhang

Description : Fragment assembly is a powerful method of protein structure prediction that builds protein models from a pool of candidate fragments taken from known structures. Stochastic sampling is subsequently used to refine the models. The structures are first represented as coarse-grained models and then as all-atom models for computational efficiency. Many models have to be generated independently due to the stochastic nature of the sampling methods used to search f...

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Plos One : Dynamic Link Between Histone H3 Acetylation and an Incr...

By: Dan Kaufman

Description : Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are functionally heterogeneous, display insufficient biological efficacy and generally possess the electrophysiological properties seen in fetal CMs. However, a homogenous population of hESC/hiPSC-CMs, with properties similar to those of adult human ventricular cells, is required for use in drug cardiotoxicity screening. Unfortunately, despi...

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Plos One : Swimming Training Induces Liver Mitochondrial Adaptatio...

By: Juan Sastre

Description : Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

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Plos One : Cd8 T Cell Memory Recall is Enhanced by Novel Direct In...

By: George Kassiotis

Description : Protection against many intracellular pathogens is provided by CD8 T cells, which are thought to need CD4 T cell help to develop into effective memory CD8 T cells. Because murine CD8 T cells do not transcribe MHC class II (MHC-II) genes, several models have proposed antigen presenting cells (APCs) as intermediaries required for CD4 T cells to deliver their help to CD8 T cells. Here, we demonstrate the presence of MHC-II molecules on activated murine CD8 T c...

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