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Plos One : the Hierarchical Process of Differentiation of Long-liv...

By: Geetha P. Bansal

Description : Switched CD19-positive memory B cells purified from mice with chronic immune response against Thalassophryne nattereri venom proteins were cultured with venom or cytokines. Our results confirm the existence of a hierarchic process of differentiation : activated memory B cells progressively acquire increasing levels of CD138 and decreasing levels of CD45R/B220 to finally arrive at ASC with B220neg phenotype, which are IgG1-secreting cells. Only Bmem from per...

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Plos One : Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Protein P6 Inhibits Signaling ...

By: Frederik Börnke

Description : Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signaling) and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression...

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Plos One : Tick Paralysis in Spectacled Flying-foxes Pteropus Cons...

By: Ulrike Gertrud Munderloh

Description : When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flyingfoxes (SFF) (Pteropus conspicillatus), a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus), resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypo...

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Plos One : Hormonal Contraception is Associated with a Reduced Ris...

By: D William Cameron

Description : HC-use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of BV. This negative association was robust and present regardless of HC-type and evident across all three BV outcome measures. When stratified by HC-type, combined-HC and POC were both individually associated with a reduction in the prevalence and incidence of BV. This meta-analysis provides compelling evidence that HC-use influences a woman’s risk of BV, with important implications for clinicians and...

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Plos One : Are Plant Species Able to Keep Pace with the Rapidly Ch...

By: David L. Roberts

Description : Future climate change is predicted to advance faster than the postglacial warming. Migration may therefore become a key driver for future development of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. For 140 European plant species we computed past range shifts since the last glacial maximum and future range shifts for a variety of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and global circulation models (GCMs). Range shift rates were estimated by me...

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Plos One : Fatty Acid Composition at the Base of Aquatic Food Webs...

By: Diego Fontaneto

Description : Spatial variation in food resources strongly influences many aspects of aquatic consumer ecology. Although large-scale controls over spatial variation in many aspects of food resources are well known, others have received little study. Here we investigated variation in the fatty acid (FA) composition of seston and primary consumers within (i.e., among habitats) and among tributary systems of Lake Michigan, USA. FA composition of food is important because al...

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Plos One : Copeptin, Procalcitonin and Routine Inflammatory Marker...

By: Thiruma V. Arumugam

Description : Among ischemic stroke patients, copeptin, PCT, WBC and CRP measured on admission were predictors of infection in general, and specifically for pneumonia and UTI within 5 days after stroke. The combination of these biomarkers improved the prediction of patients who developed an infection.

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Plos One : Meta-analysis of the Relationship Between Common Type 2...

By: Sudha Chaturvedi

Description : This meta-analysis found 8 genetic variants associated with GDM. The relative contribution and relevance of the identified genes in the pathogenesis of GDM should be the focus of future studies.

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Plos One : Proteomic and Properties Analysis of Botanical Insectic...

By: Vladimir N. Uversky

Description : These rhodojaponin III-induced proteins and gene properties analysis would be essential for a better understanding of the potential molecular mechanism of the response to rhodojaponin III from moths of P. xylostella.

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Plos One : Effect of Ethanol on Differential Protein Production an...

By: Gunnar F. Kaufmann

Description : Acinetobacter baumannii persists in the medical environment and causes severe human nosocomial infections. Previous studies showed that low-level ethanol exposure increases the virulence of A. baumannii ATCC 17978. To better understand the mechanisms involved in this response, 2-D gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to investigate differential protein production in bacteria cultured in the presence or absence of ethanol. This approa...

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Plos One : Mice with Hypomorphic Expression of the Sodium-phosphat...

By: Jean-marc Vanacker

Description : The formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and their insertion into collagen fibrils of the matrix are essential steps for bone mineralization. As phosphate is a main structural component of apatite crystals, its uptake by skeletal cells is critical and must be controlled by specialized membrane proteins. In mammals, in vitro studies have suggested that the high-affinity sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1 could play this role. In vivo, PiT1 expression was de...

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Plos One : Outcomes of Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment ...

By: Keertan Dheda

Description : Favorable outcomes can be achieved in co-infected patients using a community-based treatment model when both MDR-TB and HIV disease are treated concurrently and treatment is initiated promptly.

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Plos One : Invasion Dynamics of a Fish-free Landscape by Brown Tro...

By: Carlos Garcia De Leaniz

Description : Metapopulation dynamics over the course of an invasion are usually difficult to grasp because they require large and reliable data collection, often unavailable. The invasion of the fish-free freshwater ecosystems of the remote sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands following man-made introductions of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the 1950’s is an exception to this rule. Benefiting from a full long term environmental research monitoring of the invasion, we built a...

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Plos One : Engineered Mitochondrial Ferritin as a Magnetic Resonan...

By: Juri G. Gelovani

Description : We report the design of a MRI reporter gene with applications to non-invasive molecular imaging. We modified mitochondrial ferritin to localize to the cell cytoplasm. We confirmed the efficient cellular processing of this engineered protein and demonstrated high iron loading in mammalian cells. The reporter’s intracellular localization appears as distinct clusters that deliver robust MRI contrast. We used this new reporter to image in vivo and ex vivo the g...

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Plos One : Resveratrol Treatment Delays Growth Plate Fusion and Im...

By: Luc Malaval

Description : Trans-resveratrol (RES), naturally produced by many plants, has a structure similar to synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, but any effect on bone growth has not yet been clarified. Pre-pubertal ovary-intact New Zealand white rabbits received daily oral administration of either vehicle (control) or RES (200 mg/kg) until growth plate fusion occurred. Bone growth and growth plate size were longitudinally monitored by X-ray imaging, while at the endpoint, bo...

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Plos One : High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria an...

By: Shuang-yong Xu

Description : Background : We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if...

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Plos One : Anti-trypanosoma Cruzi Cross-reactive Antibodies Detect...

By: Sylvie Bisser

Description : Cross-reactive antibodies are characterized by their recognition of antigens that are different from the trigger immunogen. This happens when the similarity between two different antigenic determinants becomes adequate enough to enable a specific binding with such cross-reactive antibodies. In the present manuscript, we report the presence, at an ‘‘abnormal’’ high frequency, of antibodies in blood samples from French human subjects cross-reacting with a syn...

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Plos One : Flying at No Mechanical Energy Cost ; Disclosing the Se...

By: André Chiaradia

Description : Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do : fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consis...

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Plos One : Computational Investigation on the Photoacoustics of Ma...

By: Alister G. Craig

Description : A computer simulation study on the possibility of using photoacoustic (PA) technique to differentiate intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite is reported. This parasite during its development substantially converts hemoglobin into hemozoin. This conversion is expected to alter the cellular absorption leading to changes in the PA emission of a red blood cell (RBC) at certain incident optical wavelengths. The PA signals from blood samples corresponding ...

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Plos One : Full Inhibition of Spinal Faah Leads to Trpv1-mediated ...

By: Le Bernard Foll

Description : Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high dos...

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