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Plos One : Ofd1 Controls Dorso-ventral Patterning and Axoneme Elon...

By: Xin Zhang

Description : Oral-facial-digital type I syndrome (OFDI) is a human X-linked dominant-male-lethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. Similar to other inherited disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction OFD type I patients display neurological abnormalities. We characterized the neuronal phenotype that results from Ofd1 inactivation in early phases of mouse embryonic development and at post-natal stages. We determined that Ofd1 plays a crucial ...

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Plos One : the First Peopling of South America ; New Evidence from...

By: Dennis O’rourke

Description : Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America) belonging to haplogroup Q – virtual...

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Plos One : a Widespread and Unusual Rna Trans-splicing Type in Din...

By: André Paul Gerber

Description : Cytochrome oxidase subunit 3 (Cox3) is a mitochondrion-encoded core membrane protein of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and consists of seven trans-membrane helices. Here we show that in diverse laterbranching dinoflagellates, cox3 is consistently split into two exons in the mitochondrial genome between helices six and seven. Gene exons are transcribed as two discrete oligoadenylated precursor RNAs, and these are subsequently transspliced...

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Plos One : Measuring Health System Strengthening ; Application of ...

By: Thomas Eisele

Description : The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of health systems.

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Plos One : Evolutionary Dynamics of the Interferon-induced Transme...

By: Marc Robinson-rechavi

Description : Vertebrate interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) genes have been demonstrated to have extensive and diverse functions, playing important roles in the evolution of vertebrates. Despite observance of their functionality, the evolutionary dynamics of this gene family are complex and currently unknown. Here, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses to unravel the evolutionary history of the vertebrate IFITM family. A total of 174 IFITM orthologous genes a...

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Plos One : Exposure to Heavy Ion Radiation Induces Persistent Oxid...

By: Eric Y. Chuang

Description : Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to radiolysis of water molecules and is short lived. Persistent oxidative stress has also been observed after radiation exposure and is implicated in the late effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to determine if long-term oxidative stress in freshly isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is dependent on radiation quality at a do...

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Plos One : End-of-life Decisions ; a Cross-national Study of Treat...

By: Thomas A. Smith

Description : The study revealed a higher prevalence of treatment preference discussions and surrogate appointments in the two northern compared to the two southern European countries. Factors associated with preference discussions and surrogate appointments suggest that delaying diagnosis discussions impedes anticipatory planning, whereas early preference discussions, particularly for dementia patients, and the provision of palliative care encourage participation.

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Plos One : the Incidence of First Venous Thromboembolism in and Ar...

By: Peter Whittaker

Description : Using combined CPRD and HES data gives estimates of the risk of VTE in and around pregnancy that are comparable to the existing literature. It also provides more accurate estimation of the date of VTE diagnosis which will allow risk stratification during specific pregnancy and postpartum periods.

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Plos One : a Suite of Models to Support the Quantitative Assessmen...

By: Alex R. Cook

Description : Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here w...

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Plos One : Comparative Analysis of Pathogenicity and Phylogenetic ...

By: Sung-hwan Yun

Description : Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. Members of the Magnaporthe grisea species complex cause blast disease on a wide range of gramineous hosts, including cultivated rice and other grass species. Recently, based on phylogenetic analyses and mating tests, isolates from crabgrass were separated from the species complex and named M. grisea. Then other isolates from grasses including rice were named as M. oryzae. Here, we ...

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Plos One : Secondary Prevention After Minor Stroke and Tia - Usual...

By: Claudio Moretti

Description : Risk factor control remains unsatisfactory in usual care. Targets of secondary prevention were met more often within the supported cohort. Effects on (cerebro-)vascular recurrence rates are going to be assessed in a multicenter randomized trial.

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Plos One : Lysophosphatidylinositol-acyltransferase-1 Lpiat1 is Re...

By: Rajesh Mohanraj

Description : We disrupted the gene encoding lysophosphatidylinositol-acyltransferase-1 (LPIAT1) in the mouse with the aim of understanding its role in determining cellular phosphoinositide content. LPIAT12/2 mice were born at lower than Mendelian ratios and exhibited a severe developmental brain defect. We compared the phospholipid content of livers and brains from LPIAT12/2 and LPIAT1+/+ littermates by LC-ESI/MS. In accord with previous studies, the most abundant molec...

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Plos One : Slc25A13 Gene Analysis in Citrin Deficiency ; Sixteen N...

By: David C. Samuels

Description : This paper further enriched the SLC25A13 variation spectrum worldwide, and formed a substantial contribution to the in-depth understanding of the genotypic feature of Chinese CD patients.

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Plos One : Nitric Oxide as a Biomarker of Intracellular Salmonella...

By: Joseph Bauer Alan

Description : Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars in poultry and is often associated with human salmonellosis. S. Enteritidis is known to suppress nitric oxide (NO) production in infected chicken macrophage HD11 cells, while dead S. Enteritidis stimulates a high level of NO production, suggesting a bacterial inhibitory effect on NO production. Based on these observations, the present study was conducted to evaluate whe...

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Plos One : Reference-free Comparative Genomics of 174 Chloroplasts...

By: Jianwei Zhang

Description : Direct analysis of unassembled genomic data could greatly increase the power of short read DNA sequencing technologies and allow comparative genomics of organisms without a completed reference available. Here, we compare 174 chloroplasts by analyzing the taxanomic distribution of short kmers across genomes [1]. We then assemble de novo contigs centered on informative variation. The localized de novo contigs can be separated into two major classes : tip = un...

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Plos One : Il-18 Induces Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Pulmonary ...

By: Marco Idzko

Description : IL-18 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including pulmonary infection, pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unknown whether IL-18 plays any role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that overexpression of mature IL-18 protein in the lungs may exacerbate disease activities of asthma. We established lung-specific IL-18 transgenic mice on a Balb/c geneti...

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Plos One : Baff Controls Neural Cell Survival Through Baff Recepto...

By: Jun-ichi Kira

Description : Various neuroprotective factors have been shown to help prevention of neuronal cell death, which is responsible for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, most of these therapeutic potentials have been tested by administration of recombinant proteins, transgenic expression or virus vector-mediated gene transfer. Therefore, it remains to be clarified whether any endogenous factors has advantage for...

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Plos One : Autochthonous Mouse Melanoma and Mammary Tumors Do Not ...

By: Wei Yan

Description : The homeodomain transcription factors Oct4 and Nanog maintain pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. In somatic cells, inappropriate expression of these genes has been associated with loss of differentiation, malignant transformation, and the acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties. As cancer stem cells have been suggested to underlie the growth and malignancy of tumors, Oct4 and Nanog may represent therapeutic targets. Their express...

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Plos One : Meta-regression Analyses, Meta-analyses, and Trial Sequ...

By: C. Mary Schooling

Description : Beta-carotene and vitamin E in doses higher than the RDA seem to significantly increase mortality, whereas we lack information on vitamin A. Dose of vitamin A was significantly associated with increased mortality in meta-regression. We lack information on doses below the RDA.

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Plos One : Co-crystalization and in Vitro Biological Characterizat...

By: Wenqing Xu

Description : A potential therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer that has gained much interest is the inhibition of the ATP binding and ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone Hsp90. We have determined the structure of the human Hsp90a N-terminal domain in complex with a series of 5-aryl-4-(5-substituted-2-4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-thiadiazoles. The structures provide the molecular details for the activity of these inhibitors. One of these inhibitors, ICPD 34, cause...

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