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Plos One : Projected Near-future Levels of Temperature and Pco2 Re...

By: John Murray Roberts

Description : Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) are projected to contribute to a 1.1–6.4uC rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14–0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the i...

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Plos One : Impact of the Ku Complex on Hiv-1 Expression and Latenc...

By: David Harrich

Description : Ku, a cellular complex required for human cell survival and involved in double strand break DNA repair and multiple other cellular processes, may modulate retroviral multiplication, although the precise mechanism through which it acts is still controversial. Recently, Ku was identified as a possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) target in human cells, in two global approaches. Here we investigated the role of Ku on the HIV-1 replication c...

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Plos One : the First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle...

By: Richard J. Butler

Description : Our description of Maledictosuchus riclaensis shows that the craniodental morphologies that underpinned the success of Rhacheosaurini in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, as a result of increasing marine specialization to adaptations for feeding on fast small-bodied prey (i.e. divided and retracted external nares: reorientation of the lateral processes of the frontal: elongate, tubular rostrum: procumbent and non-carinated dentition: high overall toot...

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Plos One : Early Chronotype and Tissue-specific Alterations of Cir...

By: Nicholas S. Foulkes

Description : Malfunction of the circadian timing system may result in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and conversely, these diseases can impair the circadian system. The aim of this study was to reveal whether the functional state of the circadian system of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differs from that of control Wistar rat. This study is the first to analyze the function of the circadian system of SHR in its complexity, i.e., of the central clock in th...

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Plos One : Effects of Two Commonly Found Strains of Influenzaa a V...

By: Malú G. Tansey

Description : Influenza virus (InfV) infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for neurodevelopment abnormalities in the offspring, including the risk of schizophrenia, and has been shown to result in an abnormal behavioral phenotype in mice. However, previous reports have concentrated on neuroadapted influenza strains, whereas increased schizophrenia risk is associated with common respiratory InfV. In addition, no specific mechanism has been proposed for the act...

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Plos One : Mechanism of Fcc Receptor-mediated Trogocytosis- Based ...

By: Yoshihiko Hoshino

Description : The whole blood erythrocyte lysis method is the most common protocol of sample preparation for flow cytometry (FCM). Although this method has many virtues, our recent study has demonstrated false-positive results when surface markers of monocytes were examined by this method due to the phenomenon called Fcc receptor (FccR)-mediated trogocytosis. In the present study, similar FccR-mediated trogocytosis-based false-positive results have been demonstrated when...

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Plos One : Distinct Functional Interactions Between Actin Isoforms...

By: Friedrich Frischknecht

Description : Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic b- and c-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. ...

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Plos One : Interaction Between Retinoid Acid Receptor-related Orph...

By: Robert Lafrenie

Description : Retinoid acid receptor-related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma in a genome-wide association study. To investigate the impact of RORA on asthma susceptibility, we performed a genetic association study between RORA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of the asthma-associated SNP (rs11071559) and asthma-related traits. Because the regulatory region of a previously implicated asthma sus...

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Plos One : the Smc5-smc6 Complex Regulates Recombination at Centro...

By: Anja-katrin Bielinsky

Description : The Smc5-Smc6 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is both essential for growth and important for coping with genotoxic stress. While it facilitates damage tolerance throughout the genome under genotoxin treatment, its function during unperturbed growth is mainly documented for repetitive DNA sequence maintenance. Here we provide physical and genetic evidence showing that the Smc5–Smc6 complex regulates recombination at non-repetitive loci such as centromere...

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Plos One : Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography ...

By: Corrie S. Moreau

Description : Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Ber...

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Plos One : a Computational Model for Histone Mark Propagation Repr...

By: Esteban Ballestar

Description : Chromatin is a highly compact and dynamic nuclear structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins. The main organizational unit is the nucleosome, which consists of a histone octamer with DNA wrapped around it. Histone proteins are implicated in the regulation of eukaryote genes and they carry numerous reversible post-translational modifications that control DNA-protein interactions and the recruitment of chromatin binding proteins. Heterochromatin, ...

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Plos One : Testosterone Delivered with a Scaffold is as Effective ...

By: M. Carlos Isales

Description : Loss of large bone segments due to fracture resulting from trauma or tumor removal is a common clinical problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of scaffolds containing testosterone, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or a combination of both for treatment of critical-size segmental bone defects in mice. A 2.5-mm wide osteotomy was created on the left femur of wildtype and androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Testosterone, BMP-2, or bot...

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Plos One : Photosynthetic Electron Transport System Promotes Synth...

By: Nikolai Lebedev

Description : In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Aunanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au3+ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 mmol m22 s21 photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified...

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Plos One : Melanopsin Gene Polymorphism I394T is Associated with P...

By: Namni Goel

Description : Human melanopsin gene polymorphism I394T interacted with irradiance in association with pupil size. This is the first evidence suggesting a functional connection between melanopsin gene polymorphism and pupillary light response as an index of non-image forming response to light

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Plos One : Non-covalent Interaction Between Polyubiquitin and Gtp ...

By: Ramani Ramchandran

Description : GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). GTPCH1 protein degradation has been reported in animal models of several diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GTPCH1 is degraded remain uncharacterized. Here we report a novel noncovalent interaction between polyubiquitin and GTPCH1 in vitro and in vivo. The non-covalent binding of GTP...

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Plos One : Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin R...

By: Michel Botbol

Description : Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. ...

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Plos One : a Heat-shock Protein Axis Regulates Vegfr2 Proteolysis,...

By: Paolo Madeddu

Description : Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binds to the VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulating endothelial function, vascular physiology and angiogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying VEGFR2 turnover and degradation in this response is unclear. Here, we tested a role for heat-shock proteins in regulating the presentation of VEGFR2 to a degradative pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 stimulated VEGFR2 degradation in primary endothelial ...

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Plos One : Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Playe...

By: Roger C. Young

Description : Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (2110uC to 2140uC). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim...

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Plos One : Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in ...

By: Michel Baudry

Description : The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits: they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strat...

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Plos One : Contribution of Individual Ebp Pilus Subunits of Entero...

By: Lynn E. Hancock

Description : The endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp) operon is a component of the core genome of Enterococcus faecalis that has been shown to be important for biofilm formation, adherence to host fibrinogen, collagen and platelets, and in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infection models. Here, we created single and double deletion mutants of the pilus subunits and sortases: next, by combining western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy, and using...

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