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Plos One : Identification and Validation of Novel Contraction- Reg...

By: Guillermo Lopez-lluch

Description : Proteins secreted by skeletal muscle, so called myokines, have been shown to affect muscle physiology and additionally exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Although recent profiling studies have identified numerous myokines, the amount of overlap from these studies indicates that the secretome of skeletal muscle is still incompletely characterized. One limitation of the models used is the lack of contraction, a central characteristic of muscl...

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Plos One : Protein Disulfide Isomerase-like Protein 1-1 Controls E...

By: Joshua L. Heazlewood

Description : Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1) during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1D, identif...

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Plos One : Unique Kinase Catalytic Mechanism of Acek with a Single...

By: Claudio M. Soares

Description : Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) is the founding member of the protein phosphorylation system in prokaryotes. Based on the novel and unique structural characteristics of AceK recently uncovered, we sought to understand its kinase reaction mechanism, along with other features involved in the phosphotransfer process. Herein we report density functional theory QM calculations of the mechanism of the phosphotransfer reaction catalysed by AceK....

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Plos One : Revisiting the Two-layer Hypothesis ; Coexistence of Al...

By: Robert Planque

Description : The two-layer hypothesis of tree-grass coexistence posits that trees and grasses differ in rooting depth, with grasses exploiting soil moisture in shallow layers while trees have exclusive access to deep water. The lack of clear differences in maximum rooting depth between these two functional groups, however, has caused this model to fall out of favor. The alternative model, the demographic bottleneck hypothesis, suggests that trees and grasses occupy over...

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Plos One : Cellular and Cytokine Correlates of Severe Dengue Infec...

By: Xia Jin

Description : Our data suggest that serum IL-10, TNFa and TGFb differentially associate with dengue disease severity.

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Plos One : Activity of Fusion Prophenoloxidase-gfp and Its Potenti...

By: Eric Jan

Description : Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is essential for physiological functions such as melanization of invading pathogens, wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. The insect PPO activation pathway is well understood. However, it is not very clear how PPO is released from hemocytes and how PPO takes part in cellular immunity. To begin to assess this, three Drosophila melanogaster PPO genes were separately fused with GFP at the C-terminus (rPPO-GFP) and were over-e...

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Plos One : a Refined Study of Fcrl Genes from a Genome-wide Associ...

By: Massimo Pietropaolo

Description : To pinpoint the exact location of the etiological variant/s present at 1q21.1 harboring FCRL1-5 and CD5L genes, we carried out a refined association study in the entire FCRL region in 1,536 patients with Graves’ disease (GD) and 1,516 sex-matched controls by imputation analysis, logistic regression, and cis-eQTL analysis. Among 516 SNPs with P,0.05 in the initial GWAS scan, the strongest signals associated with GD and correlated to FCRL3 expression were loc...

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Plos One : Change and Variability in East Antarctic Sea Ice Season...

By: Peter Strutton

Description : Recent analyses have shown that significant changes have occurred in patterns of sea ice seasonality in West Antarctica since 1979, with wide-ranging climatic, biological and biogeochemical consequences. Here, we provide the first detailed report on long-term change and variability in annual timings of sea ice advance, retreat and resultant ice season duration in East Antarctica. These were calculated from satellite-derived ice concentration data for the pe...

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Plos One : the Ratio of Treg, Volume 7

By: Derya Unutmaz

Description : The ratio of Treg/Th17 might be relevant to the clinical diversity of ITP patients, and this Treg/Th17 ratio might have prognostic role in ITP patients.

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Plos One : Health and Economic Burden of Obesity in Brazil, Volume 8

By: Bruno Caramelli

Description : Obesity rates are rapidly increasing creating a high burden of disease and associated costs. However, an effective intervention to decrease obesity by just 1% will substantially reduce obesity burden and will have a significant effect on health care expenditure.

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Plos One : Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide, a Source of Hydroxyl Rad...

By: Ching-hong Yang

Description : It is strongly suggested that although hydrogen peroxide is present in AEW as a source of hydroxyl radicals, the antimicrobial activity of AEW does not depend on these radicals.

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Plos One : Transcriptional Regulation of Mesoderm Genes by Mef2D D...

By: Michael Klymkowsky

Description : In Xenopus, specification of the three germ layers is one of the earliest developmental decisions occurring prior to gastrulation. The maternally-expressed vegetally-localized transcription factor VegT has a central role in cell autonomous specification of endoderm and in the generation of mesoderm-inducing signals. Yet, marginally-expressed transcription factors that cooperate with mesoderm-inducing signals are less investigated. Here we report that the tr...

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Plos One : Rat Embryonic Mast Cells Originate in the Agm, Volume 8

By: Shree Ram Singh

Description : Mast cells originate from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Two mast cell specific antibodies, mAbsAA4 and BGD6, have previously been used to identify and study committed mast cell precursors (MCcps) in the bone marrow of adult mice and rats. However, the embryonic origin of MCcps is still not known. In the present study, we identified MCcps in rat embryos using these previously characterized mast cell specific antibodies. The MCcps were found in the AG...

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Plos One : Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virion Tegument Icp4 Derived...

By: Karen L. Mossman

Description : Antibiotic resistance and microbiota within edible snow crabs are important for the Chionoecetes (snow crab) fishing industry. We investigated these parameters using culture methods and antibiotic susceptibility tests with six internal organs from three species of Chionoecetes. Each sample revealed many unexpected microbial species within Chionoecetes internal organs. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 381 isolates, the most abundant genera ident...

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Plos One : Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake Among ...

By: Nadine Ravel

Description : Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children’s food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children’s hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investi...

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Plos One : Neuroprotective Activities of Palmitoylethanolamide in ...

By: R. Lee Mosley

Description : The biochemical and cellular changes that occur following treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP) are remarkably similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, which results in disabling motor disturbances. Activation of glial cells and the consequent neuroinflammatory response is increasingly recognized as a prominent neuropathological fea...

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Plos One : Uncertainties in Measuring Populations Potentially Impa...

By: Abdisalan Mohamed Noor

Description : A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of po...

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Plos One : Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Surface- Lo...

By: Mitchell F. Balish

Description : Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive uni...

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Plos One : Epigenetic Regulation During Fetal Femur Development ; ...

By: Nuno M. Neves

Description : Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression: conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to act...

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Plos One : My Child Redeems My Broken Dreams ; on Parents Transfer...

By: James G. Scott

Description : From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual. When parents see their child as part of themselves, their child’s achievements may easily come to function as a surrogate for parents’ own unfulfilled ambitions. In the presen...

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