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Plos One : Monkeys in the Middle ; Parasite Transmission Through t...

By: Judith Korb

Description : In wildlife populations, group-living is thought to increase the probability of parasite transmission because contact rates increase at high host densities. Physical contact, such as social grooming, is an important component of group structure, but it can also increase the risk of exposure to infection for individuals because it provides a mechanism for transmission of potentially pathogenic organisms. Living in groups can also create variation in suscepti...

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Plos One : Monitoring of Xenograft Tumor Growth and Response to Ch...

By: John D. Minna

Description : A continuous monitoring of the whole tumor burden of individuals in orthotopic tumor models is a desirable aim and requires non-invasive imaging methods. Here we investigated whether quantification of a xenograft tumor intrinsic fluorescence signal can be used to evaluate tumor growth and response to chemotherapy. Stably fluorescence protein (FP) expressing cell clones of colorectal carcinoma and germ cell tumor lines were generated by lentiviral transducti...

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Plos One : Numerical Simulation of Passage of a Neutrophil Through...

By: P. James Brody

Description : The authors have previously presented a mathematical model to predict transit time of a neutrophil through an alveolar capillary segment which was modeled as an axisymmetric arc-shaped constriction settled in a cylindrical straight pipe to investigate the influence of entrance curvature of a capillary on passage of the cell. The axially asymmetric cross section of a capillary also influences the transit time because it requires three-dimensional deformation...

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Plos One : First Evidence of Sternal Wound Biofilm Following Cardi...

By: J. Paul Planet

Description : Management of deep sternal wound infection (SWI), a serious complication after cardiac surgery with high morbidity and mortality incidence, requires invasive procedures such as, debridement with primary closure or myocutaneous flap reconstruction along with use of broad spectrum antibiotics. The purpose of this clinical series is to investigate the presence of biofilm in patients with deep SWI. A biofilm is a complex microbial community in which bacteria at...

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Plos One : Type and Extent of Somatic Morbidity Before and After t...

By: Paula Soares

Description : Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism there is an excess risk of being diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, diabetes mellitus, and malignant diseases. Following the diagnosis of hypothyroidism we demonstrate an increased frequency of cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, and diabetes mellitus.

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Plos One : Depletion of Hdac6 Enhances Cisplatin-induced Dna Damag...

By: Guenter Schneider

Description : Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising therapeutic agents which are currently used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in clinical trials for cancer treatment including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms underlying their anti-tumor activities remain elusive. Previous studies showed that inhibition of HDAC6 induces DNA damage and sensitizes transformed cells to anti-tumor agents such as etoposide and doxorubicin...

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Plos One : Involvement of Erk-nrf-2 Signaling in Ionizing Radiatio...

By: Andreas Villunger

Description : Prolonged oxidative stress favors tumorigenic environment and inflammation. Oxidative stress may trigger redox adaptation mechanism(s) in tumor cells but not normal cells. This may increase levels of intracellular antioxidants and establish a new redox homeostasis. Nrf-2, a master regulator of battery of antioxidant genes is constitutively activated in many tumor cells. Here we show that, murine T cell lymphoma EL-4 cells show constitutive and inducible rad...

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Plos One : Monitoring Monoclonal Antibody Delivery in Oncology ; t...

By: Rossella Rota

Description : Developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies paves the way for new strategies in oncology using targeted therapy which should improve specificity. However, due to a lack of biomarkers, a personalized therapy scheme cannot always be applied with monoclonal antibodies. As a consequence, the efficacy or side effects associated with this type of treatment often appear to be sporadic. Bevacizumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting Vascular Endothelia...

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Plos One : Stress Mediators and Immune Dysfunction in Patients wit...

By: Thiruma V. Arumugam

Description : Our results question the present pathophysiological concept of stress-hormone mediated immunodysfunction after stroke. Early lymphocytopenia was identified as an early independent predictor of post-stroke infections. Absence of lymphocytopenia may serve as a negative predictive marker for stratification for early antibiotic treatment.

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Plos One : Dynamic Motile T Cells Highly Respond to the T Cell Sti...

By: R. Jason Lees

Description : T lymphocytes (T cells) circulate from the blood into secondary lymphoid organs for immune surveillance. In this study, we hypothesized that circulating T cells are heterogeneous and can be grouped according to their differential migratory capacity in response to chemoattractants, rather than expressions of certain receptors or cytokines. We further hypothesized that, at least in part, this intrinsic difference in motility may be related to the T cell funct...

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Plos One : Detection of Alveolar Fibrocytes in Idiopathic Pulmonar...

By: Oliver Eickelberg

Description : Fibrocytes were detected in BAL fluid in about half of the patients with IPF and SSc-ILD. Their number was associated with less severe disease in IPF patients and did not associate with the capacity to grow fibroblasts from BAL fluid.

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Plos One : a Beamformer Analysis of Meg Data Reveals Frontal Gener...

By: Trevor Bruce Penney

Description : To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM) on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasi...

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Plos One : Dynamic Range of Vertebrate Retina Ganglion Cells ; Imp...

By: Wing-ho Yung

Description : The vertebrate retina has a very high dynamic range. This is due to the concerted action of its diverse cell types. Ganglion cells, which are the output cells of the retina, have to preserve this high dynamic range to convey it to higher brain areas. Experimental evidence shows that the firing response of ganglion cells is strongly correlated with their total dendritic area and only weakly correlated with their dendritic branching complexity. On the other h...

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Plos One : Meta-analysis of 125 Rheumatoid Arthritis-related Singl...

By: Masataka Kuwana

Description : Our meta-analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the RA association studies from the past two decades. The detailed meta-analysis results are available at : http:/210.46.85.180/DRAP/index.php/Metaanalysis/index.

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Plos One : I-pfop3I ; a Novel Nicking Hnh Homing Endonuclease Enco...

By: Shuang-yong Xu

Description : Homing endonucleases encoded in a group I self-splicing intron in a protein-coding gene in cyanophage genomes have not been reported, apart from some free-standing homing edonucleases. In this study, a nicking DNA endonuclease, I-PfoP3I, encoded in a group IA2 intron in the DNA polymerase gene of a T7-like cyanophage Pf-WMP3, which infects the freshwater cyanobacterium Phormidium foveolarum is described. The Pf-WMP3 intron splices efficiently in vivo and se...

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Plos One : Ssu Ribosomal Dna-based Monitoring of Nematode Assembla...

By: Ahmed Moustafa

Description : Soils are among the most complex, diverse and competitive habitats on Earth and soil biota are responsible for ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration and remediation of freshwater. The extreme biodiversity prohibits the making of a full inventory of soil life. Hence, an appropriate indicator group should be selected to determine the biological condition of soil systems. Due to their ubiquity and the diverse responses to abiotic an...

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Plos One : Diversity in the Major Polysaccharide Antigen of Acinet...

By: Ulrich Nubel

Description : We have sequenced the gene clusters for type strains of the Acinetobacter baumannii serotyping scheme developed in the 1990s, and used the sequences to better understand diversity in surface polysaccharides of the genus. We obtained genome sequences for 27 available serovar type strains, and identified 25 polysaccharide gene cluster sequences. There are structures for 12 of these polysaccharides, and in general the genes present are appropriate to the struc...

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Plos One : the Q2 Mitochondrial Haplogroup in Oceania, Volume 7

By: Manfred Kayser

Description : Many details surrounding the origins of the peoples of Oceania remain to be resolved, and as a step towards this we report seven new complete mitochondrial genomes from the Q2a haplogroup, from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati. This brings the total to eleven Q2 genomes now available. The Q haplogroup (that includes Q2) is an old and diverse lineage in Near Oceania, and is reasonably common: within our sample set of 430, 97 are of the Q haplogroup. Howev...

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Plos One : the Mangrove Nursery Paradigm Revisited ; Otolith Stabl...

By: Sharyn Jane Goldstien

Description : Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first ...

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Plos One : Recognition in a Social Symbiosis ; Chemical Phenotypes...

By: Stephen J. Martin

Description : Social organisms rank among the most abundant and ecologically dominant species on Earth, in part due to exclusive recognition systems that allow cooperators to be distinguished from exploiters. Exploiters, such as social parasites, manipulate their hosts’ recognition systems, whereas cooperators are expected to minimize interference with their partner’s recognition abilities. Despite our wealth of knowledge about recognition in single-species social nests,...

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