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Plos One : MacHine Learning Approach for the Outcome Prediction of...

By: Robert E. Gross

Description : Epilepsy surgery is effective in reducing both the number and frequency of seizures, particularly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients continue suffering seizures after surgery. Here we used a machine learning approach to predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery based on supervised classification data mining taking into account not only the common clinical variables, but also pathological and neuropsycholo...

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Plos One : Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate That the Act...

By: Claudine Mayer

Description : The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cellcycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions ...

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Plos One : Detection of Low Abundance Rna Molecules in Individual ...

By: Charalampos Babis Spilianakis

Description : A variety of RNA analysis technologies are available for the detection of RNA transcripts from bulk cell populations. However, the techniques for RNA detection from individual cells have been limited. Here we adapt a novel in situ signal amplification method (the RNAScopeH detection platform) for the analysis of intracellular RNAs in individual cells by flow cytometry. Using novel target-specific probes that were designed to suppress background signals, we ...

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Plos One : Tight Interconnection and Multi-level Control of Arabid...

By: Els J. M. Van Damme

Description : Abiotic stress poses a huge, ever-increasing problem to plants and agriculture. The dissection of signalling pathways mediating stress tolerance is a prerequisite to develop more resistant plant species. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signalling modules. In Arabidopsis, the MAPK MPK3 and its upstream regulator MAPK kinase MKK4 initiate the adaptation response to numerous abiotic and biotic stresses. Yet, molecular steps direc...

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Plos One : Drug Use and Sex Work ; Competing Risk Factors for Newl...

By: Paula Braitstein

Description : Our results show that a history of drug use poses significant risks for both new and established HIV infection among FSWs, and that HIV-incidence among Honghe FSWs is relatively high compared to similar populations. Comprehensive interventions targeted at DU-FSWs’ injection drug using and high risk sexual behaviors are urgently needed to reduce the rapid spread of HIV epidemic.

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Plos One : Egfr-targeted Granzyme B Expressed in Nk Cells Enhances...

By: Johan K. Sandberg

Description : Natural killer (NK) cells are highly specialized effectors of the innate immune system that hold promise for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Their cell killing activity is primarily mediated by the pro-apoptotic serine protease granzyme B (GrB), which enters targets cells with the help of the pore-forming protein perforin. We investigated expression of a chimeric GrB fusion protein in NK cells as a means to augment their antitumoral activity. For selective t...

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Plos One : Evaluation of Genotype Mtbdrsl Assay to Detect Drug Res...

By: Keertan Dheda

Description : Genotype MTBDRsl is simple, rapid, economical assay that can be used to detect commonly known resistance associated with Fluoroquinolone, second line injectable drugs and ethambutol. The assay detects the targeted resistance in less time as compared to phenotypic DST. But due to low NPV to FQ (88%) and EMB (43.21%), the assay results must be interpreted in coordination with the phenotypic DST.

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Plos One : Tlr2 and Tlr4 Mediate Differential Responses to Limb Is...

By: Rajesh Gopalrao Katare

Description : TLR2 and TRIF signaling are necessary for muscle regeneration after ischemia while MyD88 may instead mediate muscle injury. The absence of TLR4 did not affect muscle responses to ischemia. TLR4 may mediate inflammatory responses through MyD88 that are exaggerated in the absence of TLR2. Additionally, the actions of TLR4 through TRIF may promote regenerative responses that are required for recovery from muscle ischemia.

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Plos One : Identification and Characterization of the First Escher...

By: Qijing Zhang

Description : New Delhi metallo-b-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), an acquired class B carbapenemase, is a significant clinical threat due to its extended hydrolysis of b-lactams including carbapenems. In this study, we identified the first confirmed clinical isolate of Escherichia coli BJ01 harboring blaNDM-1 in China. The isolate is highly resistant to all tested antimicrobials except polymyxin. blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-57, and blaTEM-1 were identified in the isolate. blaNDM-1 was trans...

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Plos One : Fo Shou San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Prote...

By: Ramani Ramchandran

Description : Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR: Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR: Danggui) in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of ac...

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Plos One : Complete Genome Sequence of a Pantón-valentine Leukocid...

By: Min Li

Description : In the past decade, community-associated (CA-) infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged throughout the world. Different CA-MRSA strains dominate in different geographical locations. Many CA-MRSA lineages contain genes coding for the Pantón-Valentine leukocidin. However, the role of this leukotoxin in CA-MRSA pathogenesis is still controversial. The genome sequences of two key PVL-positive CA-MRSA strains (USA300, USA40...

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Plos One : Improvement in Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Ris...

By: Momiao Xiong

Description : There was significant improvement in risk prediction of CHD over 15 years when SNPs identified from GWAS were added to conventional risk factors. This effect may be particularly useful for identifying individuals with a low prognostic index who are in fact at increased risk of disease than indicated by conventional risk factors alone.

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Plos One : Pre-mrna Splicing is a Determinant of Nucleosome Organi...

By: Emanuele Buratti

Description : Chromatin organization affects alternative splicing and previous studies have shown that exons have increased nucleosome occupancy compared with their flanking introns. To determine whether alternative splicing affects chromatin organization we developed a system in which the alternative splicing pattern switched from inclusion to skipping as a function of time. Changes in nucleosome occupancy were correlated with the change in the splicing pattern. Surpris...

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Plos One : Protein Fragments ; Functional and Structural Roles of ...

By: Vasilis J. Promponas

Description : Small protein fragments, and not just residues, can be used as basic building blocks to reconstruct networks of coevolved amino acids in proteins. Fragments often enter in physical contact one with the other and play a major biological role in the protein. The nature of these interactions might be multiple and spans beyond binding specificity, allosteric regulation and folding constraints. Indeed, coevolving fragments are indicators of important information...

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Plos One : Gain-of-function Mutations in the Katp Channel Kcnj11 I...

By: Bernard Attali

Description : These results identify impaired hand-eye coordination as a new clinical feature of iDEND. The aetiology of this feature is likely to involve cerebellar dysfunction. The data further suggest that sulphonylurea doses that control the diabetes of these patients may be insufficient to fully correct their neurological symptoms.

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Plos One : Mir-506 Regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in ...

By: Fazlul H. Sarkar

Description : Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important parameter related to breast cancer survival. Among several microRNAs predicted to target EMT-related genes, miR-506 is a novel miRNA found to be significantly related to breast cancer patient survival in a meta-analysis. miR-506 suppressed the expression of mesenchymal genes such as Vimentin, Snai2, and CD151 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Moreover, NF-kB bound to the upstream promoter re...

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Plos One : Transforming Growth Factor-b1 Tgf-b1 Regulates Cell Jun...

By: Effie C. Tsilibary

Description : Nectin-like molecule-2 (Necl-2), a junction molecule, is exclusively expressed by spermatogenic cells. It mediates homophilic interaction between germ cells and heterophilic interaction between Sertoli and germ cells. Knockout studies have shown that loss of Necl-2 causes male infertility, suggesting Necl-2-based cell adhesion is crucial for spermatogenesis. Transforming growth factor-bs (TGF-bs) are crucial for regulating cell junction restructuring that a...

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Plos One : Chronic Alterations in Monoaminergic Cells in the Locus...

By: Oscar Arias-carrion

Description : Narcolepsy patients often suffer from insomnia in addition to excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcoleptic animals also show behavioral instability characterized by frequent transitions between all vigilance states, exhibiting very short bouts of NREM sleep as well as wakefulness. The instability of wakefulness states in narcolepsy is thought to be due to deficiency of orexins, neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamic neurons, which play a highly imp...

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Plos One : Mouse Testis Development and Function Are Differently R...

By: Stefan Schlatt

Description : It is currently admitted that Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is physiologically involved in the development and function of fetal/neonatal Sertoli cells in the rat but not the mouse. However, FSH is produced by both species from late fetal life onwards. We thus reinvestigated the role of FSH in mouse testis development at day 0 (birth) 6, 8 and 10 post-partum (dpp) by using mice that lack functional FSH receptors (FSH-R2/2). At birth, the number and pro...

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Plos One : Rifaximin-mediated Changes to the Epithelial Cell Prote...

By: Hendrik W. Van Veen

Description : Rifaximin is a semi-synthetic rifamycin derivative that is used to treat different conditions including bacterial diarrhea and hepatic encephalopathy. Rifaximin is of particular interest because it is poorly adsorbed in the intestines and has minimal effect on colonic microflora. We previously demonstrated that rifaximin affected epithelial cell physiology by altering infectivity by enteric pathogens and baseline inflammation suggesting that rifaximin confe...

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