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Plos One : the Transcriptomic Basis of Oviposition Behaviour in th...

By: Hiroaki Matsunami

Description : Linking behavioural phenotypes to their underlying genotypes is crucial for uncovering the mechanisms that underpin behaviour and for understanding the origins and maintenance of genetic variation in behaviour. Recently, interest has begun to focus on the transcriptome as a route for identifying genes and gene pathways associated with behaviour. For many behavioural traits studied at the phenotypic level, we have little or no idea of where to start searchin...

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Plos One : Citral is Renoprotective for Focal Segmental Glomerulos...

By: Vassiliki a Boussiotis

Description : The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is considered to be associated with oxidative stress, mononuclear leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and matrix production and/or matrix degradation, although the exact etiology and pathogenic pathways remain to be determined. Establishment of a pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategy for the disease is clinically warranted. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Li...

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Plos One : Saffold Virus Type 3 Safv-3 Persists in Hela Cells, Vol...

By: Noriyuki Nishida

Description : Saffold virus (SAFV) was identified as a human cardiovirus in 2007. Although several epidemiological studies have been reported, they have failed to provide a clear picture of the relationship between SAFV and human diseases. SAFV genotype 3 has been isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid specimen of patient with aseptic meningitis. This finding is of interest since Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), which is the closely related virus, is known...

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Plos One : Slow Sedimentation and Deformability of Charged Lipid V...

By: Timothy W. Secomb

Description : The study of vesicles in suspension is important to understand the complicated dynamics exhibited by cells in in vivo and in vitro. We developed a computer simulation based on the boundary-integral method to model the three dimensional gravity-driven sedimentation of charged vesicles towards a flat surface. The membrane mechanical behavior was modeled using the Helfrich Hamiltonian and near incompressibility of the membrane was enforced via a model which ac...

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Plos One : Virological and Serological Findings in Rousettus Aegyp...

By: Wanda Markotter

Description : The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is currently regarded as a potential reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). However, the modes of transmission, the level of viral replication, tissue tropism and viral shedding pattern remains to be described. Captive-bred R. aegyptiacus, including adult males, females and pups were exposed to MARV by different inoculation routes. Blood, tissues, feces and urine from 9 bats inoculated by combination of nasal...

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Plos One : Maintenance of the Cell Morphology by Minc in Helicobac...

By: Dipshikha Chakravortty

Description : In the model organism Escherichia coli, Min proteins are involved in regulating the division of septa formation. The computational genome analysis of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium causing gastritis and peptic ulceration, also identified MinC, MinD, and MinE. However, MinC (HP1053) shares a low identity with those of other bacteria and its function in H. pylori remains unclear. In this study, we used morphological and genetic...

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Plos One : Expression of the Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog 1 ...

By: Nils Cordes

Description : Recent evidence links aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling with the pathogenesis of several cancers including medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, melanoma as well as pancreas, colorectal, and prostate carcinomas. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor Gli1 in ovarian cancer. To this end, the expression profile of Gli1 was examined in normal ovaries, ovarian tumors, and ovarian cancer cell lines, and the in vitro effects of a specific...

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Plos One : Yellow Fluorescent Protein-based Assay to Measure Gabaa...

By: Uwe Rudolph

Description : The c-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) ion channels are important drug targets for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Finding GABAA channel subtype selective allosteric modulators could lead to new improved treatments. However, the progress in this area has been obstructed by the challenging task of developing functional assays to support screening efforts and the generation of cells expressing functional GABAA ion channels with the desired sub...

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Plos One : High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High- Pitc...

By: Alexandre Roulin

Description : The low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of son...

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Plos One : Cytoplasmic Plaque Formation in Hemidesmosome Developme...

By: Michael Klymkowsky

Description : Hemidesmosomes are composed of intricate networks of proteins, that are an essential attachment apparatus for the integrity of epithelial tissue. Disruption leads to blistering diseases such as epidermolysis bullosa. Members of the Sox gene family show dynamic and diverse expression patterns during development and mutation analyses in humans and mice provide evidence that they play a remarkable variety of roles in development and human disease. Previous stu...

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Plos One : Functional 3D Human Primary Hepatocyte Spheroids Made b...

By: Rajasingh Johnson

Description : We have generated human hepatocyte spheroids with uniform size and shape by co-culturing 1:1 mixtures of primary human hepatocytes (hHeps) from partial hepatectomy specimens and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in concave microwells. The hADSCs in spheroids could compensate for the low viability and improve the functional maintenance of hHeps. Co-cultured spheroids aggregated and formed compact spheroidal shapes more rapidly, and with a significant...

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Plos One : Silencing of Glutathione Peroxidase 3 Through Dna Hyper...

By: Regine Schneider-stock

Description : Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. H. pylori infection, a major risk factor for gastric cancer, generates high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), a plasma GPX member and a major scavenger of ROS, catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides by reduced glutathione. To study the expression and gene regulation of GPX3, we examined GPX3 gene expression ...

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Plos One : Community-based Management ; Under What Conditions Do S...

By: Kamal Bawa

Description : Community-based management (CBM) has been implemented in socio-ecological systems (SES) worldwide. CBM has also been the prevailing policy in Sa´mi pastoral SES in Norway, but the outcomes tend to vary extensively among resource groups (‘‘siidas’’). We asked why do some siidas self-organize to manage common pool resources sustainably and others do not? To answer this question we used a mixed methods approach. First, in the statistical analyses we analyzed t...

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Plos One : from Understanding the Development Landscape of the Can...

By: Maurizio Pesce

Description : Recent progress in stem cell biology, notably cell fate conversion, calls for novel theoretical understanding for cell differentiation. The existing qualitative concept of Waddington’s ‘‘epigenetic landscape’’ has attracted particular attention because it captures subsequent fate decision points, thus manifesting the hierarchical (‘‘tree-like’’) nature of cell fate diversification. Here, we generalized a recent work and explored such a developmental landsca...

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Plos One : Fragment-based Screening Maps Inhibitor Interactions in...

By: Qiming Jane Wang

Description : Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is an important serine/threonine kinase in the cellular response to DNA damage. A fragmentbased screening campaign using a combination of a high-concentration AlphaScreenTM kinase assay and a biophysical thermal shift assay, followed by X-ray crystallography, identified a number of chemically different ligand-efficient CHK2 hinge-binding scaffolds that have not been exploited in known CHK2 inhibitors. In addition, it showed that t...

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Plos One : Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils fro...

By: R. Melanie Mormile

Description : Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils cover...

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Plos One : Cichlid Fishes in the Angolan Headwaters Region ; Molec...

By: Fausto Tinti

Description : The headwaters of five large African river basins flow through the Bie´ Plateau in Angola and still remain faunistically largely unexplored. We investigated fish fauna from the Cuanza and Okavango-Zambezi river systems from central Angola. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies of the most common cichlid species from the region, Tilapia sparrmanii and Serranochromis macrocephalus, using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We found evidence for ichthyofa...

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Plos One : Characterization of Synthetic Chikungunya Viruses Based...

By: Lisa Ng Fong Poh

Description : Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that re-emerged in 2004 and has caused massive outbreaks in recent years. The lack of a licensed vaccine or treatment options emphasize the need to obtain more insight into the viral life cycle and CHIKV-host interactions. Infectious cDNA clones are important tools for such studies, and for mechanism of action studies on antiviral compounds. Existing CHIKV cDNA clones are based on a single genome from...

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Plos One : the Ability of North Island Robins to Discriminate Betw...

By: Adrian G. Dyer

Description : Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird’s ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird’s underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were d...

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Plos One : 17ß-estradiol Antagonizes the Down-regulation of Era, V...

By: Yu Huang

Description : Previous studies indicated that estrogen could improve endothelial function. However, whether estrogen protects vascular complications of diabetes has yet to be clarified. The study was designed to investigate the action of 17ß-estradiol on vascular endothelium in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with streptozotocin to produce an ovariectomized-diabetic (OVS) model which manifested as dy...

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