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Plos Biology : Lipoprotein Genotype and Conserved Pathway for Exce...

By: Simon Melov

Description : Alteration of single genes involved in nutrient and lipoprotein metabolism increases longevity in several animal models. Because exceptional longevity in humans is familial, it is likely that polymorphisms in genes favorably influence certain phenotypes and increase the likelihood of exceptional longevity. A group of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n ¼ 213), their offspring (n ¼ 216), and an age-matched Ashkenazi control group (n ¼ 258) were genotyped for 66...

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Plos Biology : Amyloid as a Depot for the Formulation of Long-acti...

By: Samir K. Maji

Description : Amyloids are highly organized protein aggregates that are associated with both neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and benign functions like skin pigmentation. Amyloids self-polymerize in a nucleation-dependent manner by recruiting their soluble protein/peptide counterpart and are stable against harsh physical, chemical, and biochemical conditions. These extraordinary properties make amyloids attractive for applications in nanotechnology. H...

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Plos Biology : Neighbourhood Continuity is Not Required for Correc...

By: Gerry M. Rubin

Description : It is now widely accepted that gene organisation in eukaryotic genomes is non-random and it is proposed that such organisation may be important for gene expression and genome evolution. In particular, the results of several large-scale gene expression analyses in a range of organisms from yeast to human indicate that sets of genes with similar tissue-specific or temporal expression profiles are clustered within the genome in gene expression neighbourhoods. ...

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Plos Biology : Linking Biodiversity Conservation and Livelihoods i...

By: Kartik Shanker
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Plos Biology : a Microtubule Interactome ; Complexes with Roles in...

By: Julian R. Hughes

Description : The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is required for many aspects of cell function, including the transport of intracellular materials, the maintenance of cell polarity, and the regulation of mitosis. These functions are coordinated by MT-associated proteins (MAPs), which work in concert with each other, binding MTs and altering their properties. We have used a MT cosedimentation assay, combined with 1D and 2D PAGE and mass spectrometry, to identify over 250 M...

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Plos Biology : Amazonian Amphibian Diversity is Primarily Derived ...

By: Craig Moritz

Description : The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth’s largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazoni...

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Plos Biology : the Wolbachia Genome of Brugia Malayi ; Endosymbion...

By: Nancy A. Moran

Description : Complete genome DNA sequence and analysis is presented for Wolbachia, the obligate alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont required for fertility and survival of the human filarial parasitic nematode Brugia malayi. Although, quantitatively, the genome is even more degraded than those of closely related Rickettsia species, Wolbachia has retained more intact metabolic pathways. The ability to provide riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, heme, and nucleotides i...

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Plos Biology : the Parasexual Cycle in Candida Albicans Provides a...

By: Anja Forche

Description : Candida albicans has an elaborate, yet efficient, mating system that promotes conjugation between diploid a and a strains. The product of mating is a tetraploid a/a cell that must undergo a reductional division to return to the diploid state. Despite the presence of several ‘‘meiosis-specific’’ genes in the C. albicans genome, a meiotic program has not been observed. Instead, tetraploid products of mating can be induced to undergo efficient, random chromoso...

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Plos Biology : Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles, Volume 4

By: Carol Tenopir

Description : Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non- OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared b...

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Plos Biology : Neural Induction in Xenopus ; Requirement for Ectod...

By: Christof Niehrs

Description : The origin of the signals that induce the differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is a long-standing question in vertebrate embryology. Here we show that Xenopus neural induction starts earlier than previously thought, at the blastula stage, and requires the combined activity of two distinct signaling centers. One is the well-known Nieuwkoop center, located in dorsal-vegetal cells, which expresses Nodal-related endomesodermal inducers. The other...

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Plos Biology : Immune Activation and Cd8Þ T-cell Differentiation T...

By: Philippa Marrack

Description : Progress in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic is hindered by our failure to elucidate the precise reasons for the onset of immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that elevated immune activation is associated with poor outcome in HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Through ex vivo analysis of virus-specific CD8þ T-cells and the use of an in vitro model of naı¨ve CD8þ T-cell priming, we ...

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Plos Biology : the Translation Initiation Factor 3F Eif3F Exhibits...

By: Norbert Perrimon

Description : Activation of the mammalian Notch receptor after ligand binding relies on a succession of events including metalloprotease-cleavage, endocytosis, monoubiquitination, and eventually processing by the gamma-secretase, giving rise to a soluble, transcriptionally active molecule. The Notch1 receptor was proposed to be monoubiquitinated before its gamma-secretase cleavage: the targeted lysine has been localized to its submembrane domain. Investigating how this s...

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Plos Biology : Institutional Open Access Funds ; Now is the Time, ...

By: Charles D. Eckman
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Plos Biology : Avoiding Url Reference Degradation in Scientifi C P...

By: Desiree P. Kelly
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Plos Biology : Antigenic Variation in Trypanosoma Brucei ; Joining...

By: Chris Stockdale
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Plos Biology : Zyxin Links Fat Signaling to the Hippo Pathway, Vol...

By: Konrad Basler

Description : The Hippo signaling pathway has a conserved role in growth control and is of fundamental importance during both normal development and oncogenesis. Despite rapid progress in recent years, key steps in the pathway remain poorly understood, in part due to the incomplete identification of components. Through a genetic screen, we identified the Drosophila Zyxin family gene, Zyx102 (Zyx), as a component of the Hippo pathway. Zyx positively regulates the Hippo pa...

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Plos Biology : Flower Petals Take Shape, Volume 11

By: Liz Savage
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Plos Biology : a Nuclear Function for Armadillo, Volume 2

By: Alfonso Martinez Arias

Description : The Wnt signaling pathway provides key information during development of vertebrates and invertebrates, and mutations in this pathway lead to various forms of cancer. Wnt binding to its receptor causes the stabilization and nuclear localization of b-catenin. Nuclear b-catenin then functions to activate transcription in conjunction with the transcription factor TCF. A recent report has challenged this basic precept of the Wnt signaling field, arguing that th...

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Plos Biology : Csi ; Bethesda, Volume 4

By: Philip Shaw
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Plos Biology : Identification and Functional Characterization of N...

By: Michael J. MacCoss

Description : Protein modifications play a major role for most biological processes in living organisms. Amino-terminal acetylation of proteins is a common modification found throughout the tree of life : the N-terminus of a nascent polypeptide chain becomes co-translationally acetylated, often after the removal of the initiating methionine residue. While the enzymes and protein complexes involved in these processes have been extensively studied, only little is known abo...

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