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Plos One : an Exploratory Case Control Study of Risk Factors for H...

By: Tara C. Smith

Description : Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis globally. Outbreaks are associated with fecal contamination of drinking water, yet the environmental reservoir of HEV between epidemics remains unclear. In contrast to neighboring countries, where epidemics and sporadic disease co-occur, HEV-endemic communities in rural Bangladesh seldom report outbreaks: sporadic hepatitis E is reported from urban and rural areas of the country. ...

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Plos One : Insecticide Resistance Alleles Affect Vector Competence...

By: John Vontas

Description : The widespread insecticide resistance raises concerns for vector control implementation and sustainability particularly for the control of the main vector of human malaria, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. However, the extent to which insecticide resistance mechanisms interfere with the development of the malignant malaria parasite in its vector and their impact on overall malaria transmission remains unknown. We explore the impact of insecticide resistance...

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Plos One : Using Central Irbs for Multicenter Clinical Trials in t...

By: T. Mark Doherty

Description : Research institutions differ in their willingness to defer to a single, central institutional review board (IRB) for multicenter clinical trials, despite statements from the FDA, OHRP, and NIH in support of using central IRBs to improve the efficiency of conducting trials. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) supported this project to solicit current perceptions of barriers to the use of central IRBs and to formulate potential solutions. We ...

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Plos One : Bi-parental Care Contributes to Sexually Dimorphic Neur...

By: Brian Christie

Description : Early life events can modulate brain development to produce persistent physiological and behavioural phenotypes that are transmissible across generations. However, whether neural precursor cells are altered by early life events, to produce persistent and transmissible behavioural changes, is unknown. Here, we show that bi-parental care, in early life, increases neural cell genesis in the adult rodent brain in a sexually dimorphic manner. Bi-parentally raise...

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Plos One : Inhibition of Doxorubicin-induced Senescence by Pparδ A...

By: Gianfranco Pintus

Description : Senescence and apoptosis are two distinct cellular programs that are activated in response to a variety of stresses. Low or high doses of the same stressor, i.e., the anticancer drug doxorubicin, may either induce apoptosis or senescence, respectively, in cardiac muscle cells. We have demonstrated that PPARd, a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that controls lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation, is also involved in the doxorubicin-in...

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Plos One : a Rapid Screening Assay to Search for Phosphorylated Pr...

By: Christina Lynn Addison

Description : Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential mechanism in the regulation of diverse biological processes, nonetheless is frequently altered in disease. As most phosphoproteome studies are based on optimized in-vitro cell culture studies new methods are in need to improve de novo identification and characterization of phosphoproteins in extracts from tissues. Here, we describe a rapid and reliable method for the detection of phosphoproteins in tissue e...

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Plos One : Connective Tissue Fibroblast Properties Are Position- D...

By: Atsushi Asakura

Description : A key factor that contributes to the regenerative ability of regeneration-competent animals such as the salamander is their use of innate positional cues that guide the regeneration process. The limbs of mammals has severe regenerative limitations, however the distal most portion of the terminal phalange is regeneration competent. This regenerative ability of the adult mouse digit is level dependent : amputation through the distal half of the terminal phala...

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Plos One : Altered Nucleotide-microtubule Coupling and Increased M...

By: Anthony George

Description : Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and do work in the cell – how the motors do this is not fully understood, but is thought to depend on the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to microtubule binding by the motor. Transmittal of conformational changes from the microtubule- to the nucleotide-binding site has been proposed to involve the central b-sheet, which could undergo large structural changes important for force production. We show here that mutation ...

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Plos One : a Novel Immunodiagnostic Assay to Detect Serum Antibody...

By: Geoffrey N. Gobert

Description : Background : Schistosomiasis japonica remains a real threat to public health in China. The currently used immunodiagnostic assays are sensitive and have a certain degree of specificity, however, they all use complex crude antigens, are based on detection of schistosome-specific antibodies, and have been shown to cross-react with other parasitic diseases. Therefore, these assays cannot be used to evaluate chemotherapy efficacy. The development of highly sens...

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Plos One : Ants of the Genus Solenopsiswestwood 1840 Hymenoptera ;...

By: Wulfila Gronenberg

Description : Ants of the genus Solenopsis Westwood in the Arabian Peninsula are revised. Six species are treated : Solenopsis elhawagryi Sharaf & Aldawood sp. n., S. geminata (Fabricius, 1804), S. omana Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, S. saudiensis Sharaf & Aldawood, 2011, S. sumara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, and S. zingibara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996. Solenopsis elhawagryi is described from Beljorashi Governorate, Al Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, based on worker castes an...

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Plos One : Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching i...

By: Sebastian C. A. Ferse

Description : Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reduction...

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Plos One : Transcriptional and Microscopic Analyses of Citrus Stem...

By: Raffaele A. Calogero

Description : Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease that affects citrus worldwide. The disease has been associated with Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB diseased citrus plants develop a multitude of symptoms including zinc and copper deficiencies, blotchy mottle, corky veins, stunting, and twig dieback. Ca. L. asiaticus infection also seriously affects the roots. Previous study focused on gene expression of leaves and fruit to Ca. L. asiaticus infection. In thi...

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Plos One : Spatial Dependency of Tuberculosis Incidence in Taiwan,...

By: Madhukar Pai

Description : Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be caused by either recent transmission from infectious patients or reactivation of remote latent infection. Spatial dependency (correlation between nearby geographic areas) in tuberculosis incidence is a signature for chains of recent transmission with geographic diffusion. To understand the contribution of recent transmission in the TB endemic in Taiwan, where reactivation has been assumed to be the predominant mode of pathog...

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Plos One : Behavioral and Molecular Analysis of Nicotine- Conditio...

By: Allan V. Kalueff

Description : Studies using mice and rats have demonstrated that nicotine induces a conditioned place preference (CPP), with more effective results obtained by using biased procedures. Zebrafish have also been used as a model system to identify factors influencing nicotine-associated reward by using an unbiased design. Here, we report that zebrafish exhibited putative nicotine biased CPP to an initially aversive compartment (nicotine-paired group). A counterbalanced nico...

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Plos One : Targeting the Shift from M1 to M2 MacRophages in Experi...

By: Serge Nataf

Description : We observed the therapeutic effect of Fasudil and explored its mechanisms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fasudil, a selective Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, was injected intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg/d in early and late stages of EAE induction. Fasudil ameliorated the clinical severity of EAE at different stages, and decreased the expression of ROCK-II in spleen, accompanied by an improvement in...

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Plos One : Ecrg4 Attenuates the Inflammatory Proliferative Respons...

By: Johanna M. Brandner

Description : We report an inverse relationship between expression of the orphan candidate tumor suppressor gene esophageal cancer related gene 4 (Ecrg4), and the mucosal epithelial cell response to infection in the middle ear (ME). First, we found constitutive Ecrg4 mRNA expression in normal, quiescent ME mucosa that was confirmed by immunostainning of mucosal epithelial cells and immunoblotting of tissue lysates for the 14 kDa Ecrg4 protein. Upon experimental ME infect...

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Plos One : Surviving Chytridiomycosis ; Differential Anti- Batrach...

By: Brian Gratwicke

Description : In the Neotropics, almost every species of the stream-dwelling harlequin toads (genus Atelopus) have experienced catastrophic declines. The persistence of lowland species of Atelopus could be explained by the lower growth rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at temperatures above 25uC. We tested the complementary hypothesis that the toads’ skin bacterial microbiota acts as a protective barrier against the pathogen, perhaps delaying or impeding the sy...

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Plos One : a Role for the Nucleosome Assembly Proteins Taf-iβ and ...

By: Michael Nevels

Description : The reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latent to lytic infection begins with the expression of the viral BZLF1 gene, leading to a subsequent cascade of viral gene expression and amplification of the EBV genome. Using RNA interference, we show that nucleosome assembly proteins NAP1 and TAF-I positively contribute to EBV reactivation in epithelial cells through the induction of BZLF1 expression. In addition, overexpression of NAP1 or the b isoform ...

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Plos One : Chronic Zinc Exposure Decreases the Surface Expression ...

By: Hemachandra Reddy

Description : Chronic zinc exposure perturbs the interaction of NR2A to PSD-95 and causes the disorder of NMDARs in hippocampal neurons, suggesting a novel action of zinc distinct from its acute effects on NMDAR activity

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Plos One : a Hydrazine Coupled Cycling Assay Validates the Decreas...

By: Lisa Carlson Lyons

Description : A commonly used enzymatic recycling assay for pyridine nucleotides has been adapted to directly measure the NAD+/NADH redox ratio in Drosophila melanogaster. This method is also suitable for quantification of NADP+ and NADPH. The addition of a coupling reaction removing acetaldehyde produced from the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) reaction was shown to improve the linearity of NAD(H) assay. The advantages of this assay method are that it allows the determinati...

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