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Plos One : in Vivo Magnetic Enrichment, Photoacoustic Diagnosis, a...

By: Gunnar F. Kaufmann

Description : Bacterial infections are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bacteremia is a particular concern owing to the possibility of septic shock and the development of metastatic infections. Treatment of bacteremia is increasingly compromised by the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, creating an urgent need for alternative therapy. Here, we introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic (PA) detection and photothermal (PT) eradication of Sta...

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Plos One : the Molecular Clockwork of the Fire Ant Solenopsis Invi...

By: Corrie S. Moreau

Description : The circadian clock is a core molecular mechanism that allows organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes and adapt the timing of behaviors to maximize efficiency. In social insects, the ability to maintain the appropriate temporal order is thought to improve colony efficiency and fitness. We used the newly sequenced fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) genome to characterize the first ant circadian clock. Our results reveal that the fire ant clock is simi...

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Plos One : Housework Reduces All-cause and Cancer Mortality in Chi...

By: Thomas Behrens

Description : Heavy housework is associated with reduced mortality and cancer deaths over a 9-year period. The underlying mechanism needs further study

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Plos One : Markers of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity in Chi...

By: Valli De Re

Description : A subset of children with autism displays increased immune reactivity to gluten, the mechanism of which appears to be distinct from that in celiac disease. The increased anti-gliadin antibody response and its association with GI symptoms points to a potential mechanism involving immunologic and/or intestinal permeability abnormalities in affected children.

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Plos One : Cubozoan Venom-induced Cardiovascular Collapse is Cause...

By: Partha Mukhopadhyay

Description : Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC) exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed a...

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Plos One : Akita Spontaneously Type 1 Diabetic Mice Exhibit Elevat...

By: Costanza Emanueli

Description : Over 24 wks of diabetes in Akita mice, both aortic and cavernosal tissues exhibited increased Arg activity/ expression, contributing to impaired endothelial and nitrergic function and reduced NO production. Our findings demonstrate involvement of Arg activity in diabetes-induced impairment of vascular function in Akita mouse.

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Plos One : Calcineurin is Required for Pseudohyphal Growth, Virule...

By: Yong-sun Bahn

Description : Candida lusitaniae is an emerging fungal pathogen that infects immunocompromised patients including HIV/AIDS, cancer, and neonatal pediatric patients. Though less prevalent than other Candida species, C. lusitaniae is unique in its ability to develop resistance to amphotericin B. We investigated the role of the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin in several virulence attributes of C. lusitaniae including pseudohyphal growth, serum survival, an...

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Plos One : Cd271 Defines a Stem Cell-like Population in Hypopharyn...

By: Vladimir V. Kalinichenko

Description : Cancer stem cells contribute to the malignant phenotypes of a variety of cancers, but markers to identify human hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) stem cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the CD271+ population sorted from xenotransplanted HPCs possesses an enhanced tumor-initiating capability in immunodeficient mice. Tumors generated from the CD271+ cells contained both CD271+ and CD2712 cells, indicating that the population could undergo differen...

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Plos One : Cplepa is Critical for Chloroplast Protein Synthesis Un...

By: Diane Bassham

Description : LEPA is one of the most conserved translation factors and is found from bacteria to higher plants. However, the physiological function of the chloroplast LEPA homolog in higher plants remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate the physiological role of cpLEPA in enabling efficient photosynthesis in higher plants. The cplepa-1 mutant displays slightly high chlorophyll fluorescence and pale green phenotypes under normal growth conditions. The growth of the cplep...

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Plos One : De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcript...

By: Christian Schönbach

Description : Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

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Plos One : Prevalence, Mass, and Glucose-uptake Activity of 18Ffdg...

By: Renato Pasquali

Description : This study identifies day length, outdoor temperature, age, sex, B

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Plos One : Running Pace Decrease During a Marathon is Positively R...

By: Conrad P. Earnest

Description : Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation.

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Plos One : New Target Genes of Mitf-induced Microrna-211 Contribut...

By: Soheil S. Dadras

Description : The non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. They down-regulate target mRNAs, which likely impacts on most fundamental cellular processes. Differential expression patterns of miRNAs are currently being exploited for identification of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis, prediction of progression for melanoma and other cancers and as promising drug targets, since they can easily be inhibited or replaced in a give...

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Plos One : Imaging Trans-cellular Neurexin-neuroligin Interactions...

By: Jianghong Rao

Description : Neurexin and neuroligin are transmembrane adhesion proteins that play an important role in organizing the neuronal synaptic cleft. Our lab previously reported a method for imaging the trans-synaptic binding of neurexin and neuroligin called BLINC (Biotin Labeling of INtercellular Contacts). In BLINC, biotin ligase (BirA) is fused to one protein while its 15-amino acid acceptor peptide substrate (AP) is fused to the binding partner. When the two fusion prote...

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Plos One : a Structural-based Strategy for Recognition of Transcri...

By: Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

Description : Scanning through genomes for potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is becoming increasingly important in this post-genomic era. The position weight matrix (PWM) is the standard representation of TFBSs utilized when scanning through sequences for potential binding sites. However, many transcription factor (TF) motifs are short and highly degenerate, and methods utilizing PWMs to scan for sites are plagued by false positives. Furthermore, many ...

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Plos One : Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication ...

By: Ehsan Arabzadeh

Description : Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural...

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Plos One : Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling Analysis of the G...

By: Qing-yuan Sun

Description : Detailed characterization of the gene expression patterns in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes is critical to understand the processes which occur prior to meiosis during normal spermatogenesis. The genome-wide expression profiles of mouse type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were investigated using the Solexa/Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) system, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and the developmental pro...

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Plos One : Single-cell and Population Nf-kb Dynamic Responses Depe...

By: Sudha Agarwal

Description : Our work strongly suggests that the cellular response to LPS is highly sensitive to the source and preparation of the ligand. We therefore caution that conclusions drawn from experiments using one preparation may not be applicable to LPS in general.

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Plos One : C911 ; a Bench-level Control for Sequence Specific Sirn...

By: Szabolcs Semsey

Description : Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have become a ubiquitous experimental tool for down-regulating mRNAs. Unfortunately, off-target effects are a significant source of false positives in siRNA experiments and an effective control for them has not previously been identified. We introduce two methods of mismatched siRNA design for negative controls based on changing bases in the middle of the siRNA to their complement bases. To test these controls, a test set of ...

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Plos One : Chronic Cadmium Treatment Promotes Oxidative Stress and...

By: Ram Nagaraj

Description : Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in t...

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