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Plos One : Reduced Cingulate Gyrus Volume Associated with Enhanced...

By: Yong Fan

Description : The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

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Plos One : Mammalian Mucosal Α-glucosidases Coordinate with Α-amyl...

By: Francois Blachier

Description : Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with a-amylase and followed by aglucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal a-glucosidases act with a-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. Th...

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Plos One : Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Following Land Aban...

By: Ben Bond-lamberty

Description : The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC) and total N (TN). However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grass...

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Plos One : Mitofusin-2 Independent Juxtaposition of Endoplasmic Re...

By: F. Gisou Van Der Goot

Description : Besides its role in controlling the morphology of mitochondria, mitofusin-2 has been proposed to tether mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), based largely on light microscopic analysis. In this study we have examined by electron microscopy the organization of ER and mitochondria in cells expressing or not mitofusin-2. Contrary to previous studies, we observed that loss of mitofusin-2 increased ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. These results suggest ...

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Plos One : 2-methoxyestradiol Induces Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, a...

By: Arun Rishi

Description : 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous derivative of 17b-estradiol, has been reported to elicit antiproliferative responses in various tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-ME on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines. We used two high-grade human bladder UC cell lines (NTUB1 and T24). After treatment with 2-ME, the cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and...

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Plos One : Dysfunctional Activation of Neurotensin, Volume 7

By: Xin-yuan Guan

Description : Dysfunctional activation of the NTS/IL-8 pathway was detected in HCC which is associated with increased inflammatory response in microenvironment, enhanced EMT in cancer, and worse prognosis in HCC patients.

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Plos One : Promoting Effects of the Adipokine, Apelin, on Diabetic...

By: Massimo Federici

Description : Angiogenesis, increased glomerular permeability, and albuminuria are thought to contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Apelin receptor (APLNR) and the endogenous ligand of APLNR, apelin, induce the sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, which may be one of the mechanisms of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, we observed apelin/APLNR expressio...

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Plos One : Human Parainfluenza Virus-associated Respiratory Tract ...

By: Yury E. Khudyakov

Description : The relevance of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) to the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in China is unclear. From May 2008 to September 2010, 443 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from hospitalized pediatric patients (age from 1 to 93 months) in Beijing were collected and screened for HPIVs and other common respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. Sixty-two of 443 samples were positive for HPIVs with 4 positive for HPIV-2 and 58 positiv...

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Plos One : the Two-component Adjuvant Ic31® Boosts Type I Interfer...

By: Ernesto T. A. Marques

Description : The aim of this study was to characterize and identify the mode of action of IC31H, a two-component vaccine adjuvant. We found that IC31H was accumulated in human peripheral blood monocytes, MHC class II positive cells and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) but not in plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). In the presence of IC31H the differentiation of inflammatory CD1a+ moDCs and the secretion of chemokines, TNF-a and IL-6 cytokines was inhibited but the production of IFNb w...

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Plos One : Cellular Robustness Conferred by Genetic Crosstalk Unde...

By: Juan Mata

Description : Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic that is among one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the clinical setting. The usage of doxorubicin is faced with many problems including severe side effects and chemoresistance. To overcome these challenges, it is important to gain an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms with regards to the mode of action of doxorubicin. To facilitate this aim, we identified the genes that are req...

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Plos One : Temperature Increase Exacerbates Apoptotic Neuronal Dea...

By: Demetrios Vavvas

Description : It is well-established that hyperthermia increases neuronal death and worsens stroke outcome. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how hyperthermia is involved in this neuronal death process. In the present study, we examined how temperature increase exacerbates neuronal death using a model of chemical ischemia. Chemical ischemia was induced by treating SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with sodium azide and deoxyglucose. Temperature increase was trea...

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Plos One : Humans Strengthen Bottom-up Effects and Weaken Trophic ...

By: Jon Moen

Description : Ongoing debate about whether food webs are primarily regulated by predators or by primary plant productivity, cast as top-down and bottom-up effects, respectively, may becoming superfluous. Given that most of the world’s ecosystems are human dominated we broadened this dichotomy by considering human effects in a terrestrial food-web. We studied a multiple human-use landscape in southwest Alberta, Canada, as opposed to protected areas where previous terrestr...

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Plos One : a Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Reg...

By: Andrew Pekosz

Description : Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and...

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Plos One : Molecular Subtypes in Head and Neck Cancer Exhibit Dist...

By: Muy-teck Teh

Description : Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequently fatal heterogeneous disease. Beyond the role of human papilloma virus (HPV), no validated molecular characterization of the disease has been established. Using an integrated genomic analysis and validation methodology we confirm four molecular classes of HNSCC (basal, mesenchymal, atypical, and classical) consistent with signatures established for squamous carcinoma of the lung, including deregul...

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Plos One : Improvement of Tuberculosis Laboratory Capacity on Pemb...

By: Petros C. Karakousis

Description : Low-income countries with high Tuberculosis burden have few reference laboratories able to perform TB culture. In 2006, the Zanzibar National TB Control Programme planned to decentralize TB diagnostics. The Italian Cooperation Agency with the scientific support of the ‘‘L. Spallanzani’’ National Institute for Infectious Diseases sustained the project through the implementation of a TB reference laboratory in a low-income country with a high prevalence of TB...

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Plos One : Effect of Orthostasis on Endothelial Function ; a Gende...

By: M Eduardo Quintas

Description : As the vascular endothelium has multiple functions, including regulation of vascular tone, it may play a role in the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. We investigated the effect of orthostasis on endothelial function using EndoPAT®, a non-invasive and user-independent method, and across gender. As sex steroid hormones are known to affect endothelial function, this study examined the potential effect of these hormones on the endothelial response to...

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Plos One : Self-construal Priming Affects Speed of Retrieval from ...

By: Luis M. Martinez

Description : We investigated the effects of collective or individual self-construal priming on recall in a short-term memory (STM) task. We primed participants to either their individual or their collective self-construals or a neutral control condition. Participants then completed a STM retrieval task using either random or patterned digit strings. Findings revealed that priming an individual self-construal resulted in faster retrieval of information from STM for both ...

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Plos One : Genetic Susceptibility to Non-necrotizing Erysipelas, V...

By: Ramy K. Aziz

Description : Specific host genetic factors may cause erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility in humans.

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Plos One : Translation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Phase-contrast Ct...

By: Ryan K. Roeder

Description : Experimental PC-CT of carotid specimens is feasible with both synchrotron and conventional X-ray sources, producing high-resolution images suitable for vessel characterization and atherosclerosis research.

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Plos One : Convergent Evolution Associated with Habitat Decouples ...

By: Art F. Y. Poon

Description : Convergent evolution can explain similarity in morphology between species, due to selection on a fitness-enhancing phenotype in response to local environmental conditions. As selective pressures on body morphology may be strong, these have confounded our understanding of the evolutionary relationships between species. Within the speciose African radiation of lacertid lizards (Eremiadini), some species occupy a narrow habitat range (e.g. open habitat, clutte...

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