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Plos One : Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects...

By: Christine Jasoni

Description : Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whet...

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Plos One : Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase-1 and Tyrosine Sulfatio...

By: Olivier Gires

Description : The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which is encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is an important oncogenic protein that is closely related to carcinogenesis and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a prevalent cancer in China. We previously reported that the expression of the functional chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with human NPC metastasis. In this study, we show that LMP1 induces tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 through tyrosylprotein...

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Plos One : Isolation and Characterization of Multipotential Mesenc...

By: Dimas Tadeu Covas

Description : The human synovium contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotential non-hematopoietic progenitor cells that can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal lineages and they may therefore be a candidate cell source for tissue repair. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this can occur are still largely unknown. Mouse primary cell culture enables us to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying various phenomena because it allows f...

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Plos One : Flat Feet, Happy Feet Comparison of the Dynamic Plantar...

By: Alejandro Lucia

Description : In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. N...

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Plos One : Neuronal Lr11 Expression Does Not Differentiate Between...

By: Stephen D. Ginsberg

Description : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Because the pathological changes underlying this disease can begin decades prior to the onset of cognitive impairment, identifying the earliest events in the AD pathological cascade has critical implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We previously reported that compared to autopsy confirmed healthy control brain, expression of LR11 (or SorLA) is markedly re...

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Plos One : Characterisation of the Bacterial and Fungal Communitie...

By: Stefan Bereswill

Description : The number and prevalence of coral diseases/syndromes are increasing worldwide. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) afflicts numerous coral species and is widespread throughout the Caribbean, yet there are no known causal agents. In this study we aimed to characterise the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) associated with DSS lesions affecting the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta using nonculture molecular techniques. Bacterial diversity of healthy tissues (H),...

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Plos One : the Role of Coincidence-detector Neurons in the Reliabi...

By: Maurice J. Chacron

Description : Subthreshold signal detection is an important task for animal survival in complex environments, where noise increases both the external signal response and the spontaneous spiking of neurons. The mechanism by which neurons process the coding of signals is not well understood. Here, we propose that coincidence detection, one of the ways to describe the functionality of a single neural cell, can improve the reliability and the precision of signal detection th...

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Plos One : Serological Evidence of Asymptomatic Infections During ...

By: Axel Cloeckaert

Description : Developed serological assays (ELISA with 84% sensitivity, 63% specificity and Western Blot with 100% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity) identified 33% (16/49) level of asymptomatic infection. Relatively small sample size and a significant time- lapse between the onset of symptoms and serum samples collection (appr. 8 weeks) might explain the assay variability. No association was found between clinical or demographic characteristics and assay positivity. Larger...

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Plos One : Rural to Urban Migration is an Unforeseen Impact of Dev...

By: R. Alexander Bentley

Description : Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young ...

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Plos One : Identification of Diverse Lipid Droplet Targeting Motif...

By: Sally Martin

Description : Members of the Patatin-like Phospholipase Domain containing Protein A (PNPLA) family play key roles in triglyceride hydrolysis, energy metabolism, and lipid droplet (LD) homoeostasis. Here we report the identification of two distinct LD targeting motifs (LTM) for PNPLA family members. Transient transfection of truncated versions of human adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2), PNPLA3/adiponutrin, or PNPLA5 (GS2-like) fused to GFP revealed ...

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Plos One : Decoding Reveals Plasticity in V3A as a Result of Motio...

By: Satoru Suzuki

Description : Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as visual performance improvement after visual experiences. VPL is often highly specific for a visual feature presented during training. Such specificity is observed in behavioral tuning function changes with the highest improvement centered on the trained feature and was originally thought to be evidence for changes in the early visual system associated with VPL. However, results of neurophysiological studies hav...

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Plos One : Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Suppresses Development...

By: Maria Rosaria Scarfi

Description : Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10–30 kV/cm), 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Exposure ...

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Plos One : Sex- and Subtype-specific Analysis of H2Afx Polymorphis...

By: Ramon Andrade De Mello

Description : H2AFX encodes a histone variant involved in signaling sites of DNA damage and recruiting repair factors. Genetic variants in H2AFX may influence risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a heterogeneous group of lymphoid tumors that are characterized by chromosomal translocations. We previously reported that rs2509049, a common variant in the promoter of H2AFX, was associated with risk for NHL in the British Columbia population. Here we report results for 13 sing...

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Plos One : Higher-order Spike Triggered Analysis of Neural Oscilla...

By: Gennady Cymbalyuk

Description : For the purpose of elucidating the neural coding process based on the neural excitability mechanism, researchers have recently investigated the relationship between neural dynamics and the spike triggered stimulus ensemble (STE). Ermentrout et al. analytically derived the relational equation between the phase response curve (PRC) and the spike triggered average (STA). The STA is the first cumulant of the STE. However, in order to understand the neural funct...

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Plos One : Susceptibility of Hamsters to Clostridium Difficileisol...

By: Michel R. Popoff

Description : Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD), which caused ,21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype: CD1342 (PaLoc negative), M68 (toxinotype VIII) & BI-7 (toxinotype III). Th...

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Plos One : Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Bladder Cancer ; a Meta- ...

By: Hamid Reza Baradaran

Description : These findings suggest that compared to non-diabetic individuals, diabetic individuals have an increased incidence and mortality of bladder cancer.

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Plos One : a Sine-derived Element Constitutes a Unique Modular Enh...

By: Mark A. Batzer

Description : Transposable elements, including short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), comprise nearly half the mammalian genome. Moreover, they are a major source of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs), which play important functional roles in regulating development-related genes, such as enhancing and silencing, serving for the diversification of morphological and physiological features among species. We previously reported a novel SINE family, AmnSINE1, as pa...

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Plos One : the Peptide Specificity of the Endogenous T Follicular ...

By: George Kassiotis

Description : T follicular helper (Tfh) cells potentiate high-affinity, class-switched antibody responses, the predominant correlate of protection from vaccines. Despite intense interest in understanding both the generation and effector functions of this lineage, little is known about the epitope specificity of Tfh cells generated during polyclonal responses. To date, studies of peptide-specific Tfh cells have relied on either the transfer of TcR transgenic cells or use ...

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Plos One : Biomarkers of Plasmodium Falciparum Infection During Pr...

By: Alister G. Craig

Description : In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum infections are an important cause of maternal morbidity as well as fetal and neonatal mortality. Erythrocytes infected by these malaria-causing parasites accumulate through adhesive interactions in placental intervillous spaces, thus evading detection in peripheral blood smears. Sequestered infected erythrocytes induce inflammation, offering the possibility of detecting inflammatory mediators in peripheral blood that...

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Plos One : Direct Regulation of Cytochrome C Oxidase by Calcium Io...

By: Y. Oleg Dmitriev

Description : Cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart binds Ca2+ reversibly at a specific Cation Binding Site located near the outer face of the mitochondrial membrane. Ca2+ shifts the absorption spectrum of heme a, which allowed previously to determine the kinetics and equilibrium characteristics of the binding. However, no effect of Ca2+ on the functional characteristics of cytochrome oxidase was revealed earlier. Here we report that Ca2+ inhibits cytochrome oxidase act...

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