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Plos One : the Sm Complex is Required for the Processing of Non- C...

By: Akio Kanai

Description : A key question in the field of RNA regulation is how some exosome substrates, such as spliceosomal snRNAs and telomerase RNA, evade degradation and are processed into stable, functional RNA molecules. Typical feature of these non-coding RNAs is presence of the Sm complex at the 39end of the mature RNA molecule. Here, we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae presence of intact Sm binding site is required for the exosome-mediated processing of telomerase RN...

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Plos One : Insights Into Factorless Translational Initiation by th...

By: Sung Key Jang

Description : The intergenic region internal ribosome entry site (IGR IRES) of the Dicistroviridae family adopts an overlapping triple pseudoknot structure to directly recruit the 80S ribosome in the absence of initiation factors. The pseudoknot I (PKI) domain of the IRES mimics a tRNA-like codon:anticodon interaction in the ribosomal P site to direct translation initiation from a non- AUG initiation codon in the A site. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive m...

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Plos One : Circulating Micrornas in Patients with Shiga-toxin- Pro...

By: Alma Zernecke

Description : Circulating microRNAs are strongly altered in this patient cohort and associated with neurological symptoms as well as platelet count.

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Plos One : Wormsizer ; High-throughput Analysis of Nematode Size a...

By: Matthew Gill

Description : The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or...

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Plos One : Interspecific Variation in Compensatory Regrowth to Her...

By: Martin Heil

Description : Plant compensatory regrowth is an induced process that enhances plant tolerance to herbivory. Plant behavior against herbivores differs between species and depends on resource availability, thus making general predictions related to plant compensatory regrowth difficult. To understand how soil nutrients determine the degree of compensatory regrowth for different plant species, we selected saplings of three Ficus species and treated with herbivore insects an...

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Plos One : Mannosylated Mucin-type Immunoglobulin Fusion Proteins ...

By: Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Description : Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule...

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Plos One : Shoe Sole Tread Designs and Outcomes of Slipping and Fa...

By: Daniel Goldreich

Description : A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF) on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motio...

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Plos One : Oral Immunotherapy for Pollen Allergy Using T-cell Epit...

By: Xi Yang

Description : Peptide immunotherapy using T-cell epitopes is expected to be an effective treatment for allergic diseases such as Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica: Cj) pollinosis. To develop a treatment for pollen allergy by inducing oral tolerance, we generated genetically manipulated (GM) chickens by retroviral gene transduction, to produce a fusion protein of chicken egg white lysozyme and a peptide derived from seven dominant human T-cell epitopes of Japanese ceda...

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Plos One : the Who Maternal Near-miss Approach and the Maternal Se...

By: Landon Myer

Description : The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

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Plos One : Hindbrain Ghrelin Receptor Signaling is Sufficient to M...

By: Raul M. Luque

Description : The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood g...

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Plos One : Oxygen Relieves the Co2 and Acetate Dependency of Lacto...

By: Willem Van Schaik

Description : Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. The probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is relatively sensitive to oxidative stress: the presence of oxygen causes a lower biomass yield due to early growth stagnation. We show however that oxygen can also be beneficial to this organism as it relieves the requirement for acetate and CO2 during growth. Both on agar- and liquid-media, anaerobic growth of L. johnsonii NCC ...

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Plos One : Endo-mitoegfp Mice ; a Novel Transgenic Mouse with Fluo...

By: Stefan Liebner

Description : Blood vessel-specific fluorescent transgenic mice are excellent tools to study the development of the vasculature and angiogenic processes. There is growing interest in the biological processes relevant to endothelial cells but limited tools exist to selectively evaluate subcellular functions of this cell type in vivo. Here, we report a novel transgenic animal model that expresses mitochondrially targeted enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) via the Hb...

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Plos One : Diabetes-induced Superoxide Anion and Breakdown of the ...

By: Alexander V. Ljubimov

Description : Diabetes-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) has been linked to hyperglycemia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is likely mediated by an increase in oxidative stress. We have shown that VEGF increases permeability of retinal endothelial cells (REC) by inducing expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). The purpose of this study was to define the role of superoxide anion in VEGF/uPAR expr...

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Plos One : Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is Linked to Right Hemisphe...

By: Jens Minnerup

Description : HAP is associated with right hemispheric peri-insular stroke. These associations may be related to autonomic modulation of immune mechanisms, supporting recent hypotheses of stroke mediated immune suppression.

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Plos One : Joint Action Syntax in Japanese Martial Arts, Volume 8

By: Attila Szolnoki

Description : Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts, requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles. We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax....

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Plos One : Automated in Vivo Platform for the Discovery of Functio...

By: Christos A. Ouzounis

Description : The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model system for both automated drug discovery and investigating hypercholesterolemia. Here we combine these aspects and for the first time develop an automated high-content confocal assay for treatments of hypercholesterolemia. We also create two algorithms for automated analysis of cardiodynamic data acquired by high-speed confocal microscopy. The first algorithm computes cardiac parameters solely from the...

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Plos One : Neutering Dogs ; Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers...

By: Bart O. Williams

Description : In contrast to European countries, the overwhelming majority of dogs in the U.S. are neutered (including spaying), usually done before one year of age. Given the importance of gonadal hormones in growth and development, this cultural contrast invites an analysis of the multiple organ systems that may be adversely affected by neutering. Using a single breed-specific dataset, the objective was to examine the variables of gender and age at the time of neuterin...

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Plos One : Rabies Virus Infection in Eptesicus Fuscus Bats Born in...

By: Bradley S. Schneider

Description : The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that...

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Plos One : Il1 Receptor Antagonist Gene Il1-rn Variable Number of ...

By: Masaru Katoh

Description : IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) and IL1beta (IL1b), members of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL1) family, play a potential role against infection and in the pathogenesis of cancers. The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the second intron of the IL1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1-RN) and a polymorphism in exon 5 of IL1B (IL1B+3954C.T, rs1143634) have been suggested in predisposition to cancer risk. However, studies have s...

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Plos One : Edges in Agricultural Landscapes ; Species Interactions...

By: Martin Heil

Description : Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a sourc...

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