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Plos One : Gut Contents as Direct Indicators for Trophic Relations...

By: Andrew A. Farke

Description : Present-day ecosystems host a huge variety of organisms that interact and transfer mass and energy via a cascade of trophic levels. When and how this complex machinery was established remains largely unknown. Although exceptionally preserved biotas clearly show that Early Cambrian animals had already acquired functionalities that enabled them to exploit a wide range of food resources, there is scant direct evidence concerning their diet and exact trophic re...

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Plos One : Scholarometer ; a Social Framework for Analyzing Impact...

By: Christos A. Ouzounis

Description : The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crow...

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Plos One : Adjunctive Aripiprazole Versus Placebo for Antipsychoti...

By: Xiang Yang Zhang

Description : Adjunctive aripiprazole is both safe and effective as a reasonable choice treatment for patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The appropriate dose of adjunctive aripiprazole may be 5 mg/day.

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Plos One : Recombinant Mammaglobin a Adenovirus-infected Dendritic...

By: Sophia N. Karagiannis

Description : Mammaglobin A (MGBA) is a novel breast cancer-associated antigen almost exclusively over-expressed in primary and metastatic human breast cancers, making it a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. The development of dendritic cell (DC)-induced tumor antigen specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may hold promise in cancer immunotherapy. In this study we constructed recombinant replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors encoding MGBA and e...

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Plos One : Genetic Diversity and Lack of Artemisinin Selection Sig...

By: João Pinto

Description : The recent detection of clinical Artemisinin (ART) resistance manifested as delayed parasite clearance in the Cambodia- Thailand border area raises a serious concern. The mechanism of ART resistance is not clear: but the P. falciparum sarco/ endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (PfSERCA or PfATP6) has been speculated to be the target of ARTs and thus a potential marker for ART resistance. Here we amplified and sequenced pfatp6 gene (,3.6 Kb) in 213 samples col...

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Plos One : Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A2 Papp-a2 Affects ...

By: Yunli Zhou

Description : Pregnancy associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) is a protease of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 and is receiving increasing attention for its roles in pregnancy and postnatal growth. The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of PAPP-A2 deletion on bone size and shape in mice at 10 weeks of age, and to determine whether Pappa2 is the gene responsible for a previously-identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) contributing ...

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Plos One : Facile Synthesis of Radial-like MacRoporous Superparama...

By: Yang Gan

Description : Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan) and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations) of the ferro-gels. The r...

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Plos One : Large-scale Functional Purification of Recombinant Hiv-...

By: Cheryl A. Stoddart

Description : During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening ef...

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Plos One : Soluble Cd14 Levels Reflect Liver Inflammation in Patie...

By: Nikki Pui-yue Lee

Description : We found that serum sCD14 levels increased significantly with increasing liver inflammation grade in patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased hepatic CD14 expression. Serum sCD14 is a promising tool to predict the worsening of liver inflammation, and may offer a potential biomarker for evaluation of therapeutic effects in NAFLD.

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Plos One : Love Thy Neighbour ; Group Properties of Gaping Behavio...

By: Martin Krkosek

Description : By associating closely with others to form a group, an animal can benefit from a number of advantages including reduced risk of predation, amelioration of environmental conditions, and increased reproductive success, but at the price of reduced resources. Although made up of individual members, an aggregation often displays novel effects that do not manifest at the level of the individual organism. Here we show that very simple behaviour in intertidal musse...

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Plos One : Reducing the Intensity and Volume of Interval Training ...

By: Conrad P. Earnest

Description : Conclusions : While improvements in aerobic capacity and exercise performance were different between groups, changes in oxidative capacity were similar despite reductions in both training intensity and volume.

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Plos One : Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles Gambiae, in Bomi Cou...

By: John Vontas

Description : High prevalence of resistance to deltamethrin in Bomi County may reduce the efficacy of malaria strategies relying on this class of insecticide. The findings highlight the urgent need to expand and sustain monitoring of insecticide resistance in Liberian malaria vectors, evaluate the effectiveness of existing interventions and develop appropriate resistance management strategies.

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Plos One : Relationship Between the Magnitude of Intraocular Press...

By: Richard Libby

Description : Retinal function recovers after IOP normalization, such that it requires a level of acute IOP elevation approximately 10 mmHg higher to cause a pattern of permanent dysfunction similar to that observed during the acute event. There is a ‘threshold’ for permanent retinal functional loss in the rat at an IOP between 60 and 70 mmHg if sustained for 105 minutes or more.

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Plos One : Temporal Colonic Gene Expression Profiling in the Recur...

By: Benoit Foligne

Description : The recurrent TNBS-colitis model in BALB/c mice has been proposed as a model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with a shifting pattern of local cytokines with the expression of Th1 cytokines during the early phase, Th17 cytokines during the intermediate phase and Th2 cytokines during late fibrotic stages. In this study, we evaluated the development of pathology in time–in conjunction with genome-wide gene expression in the colons–in response to three weekly int...

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Plos One : Multiple Causes of Fatigue During Shortening Contractio...

By: Vincenzo Lionetti

Description : Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was ...

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Plos One : Foxo3A Serves as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Hum...

By: Ram Nagaraj

Description : FoxO3a is an early stress response protein to glucose toxicity in diabetic conditions.

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Plos One : Musical Expertise and the Ability to Imagine Loudness, ...

By: Joel Snyder

Description : Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the ver...

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Plos One : Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication ...

By: Ehsan Arabzadeh

Description : Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural...

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Plos One : Bst2, Volume 7

By: Ding Xiang Liu

Description : Our results imply that BST2 is a functional mediator of the IFN response against DENV infection. BST2 inhibits the release of DENV virions from Huh7 cells and limits viral cell-to-cell transmission. BST2CV5 variant is unable to inhibit DENV release but impairs viral infection in cells.

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Plos One : One-step Transepithelial Topography-guided Ablation in ...

By: Andreas Wedrich

Description : One-step transepithelial topography-guided treatment for low to moderate myopia and astigmatism performed with a 1 KHz laser, provided safe, effective, predictable and stable results with low pain and no visually significant haze.

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