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Plos Biology : Population History and Natural Selection Shape Patt...

By: Lon Cardon

Description : Identifying regions of the human genome that have been targets of natural selection will provide important insights into human evolutionary history and may facilitate the identification of complex disease genes. Although the signature that natural selection imparts on DNA sequence variation is difficult to disentangle from the effects of neutral processes such as population demographic history, selective and demographic forces can be distinguished by analyz...

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Plos Biology : Canine Morphology ; Hunting for Genes and Tracking ...

By: Abigail L. Shearin
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Plos Biology : a Little Switch ; Alternative Domain Conformations ...

By: Richard Robinson
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Plos Biology : Gene Losses During Human Origins, Volume 4

By: Laurence D. Hurst

Description : Pseudogenization is a widespread phenomenon in genome evolution, and it has been proposed to serve as an engine of evolutionary change, especially during human origins (the ‘‘less-is-more’’ hypothesis). However, there has been no comprehensive analysis of human-specific pseudogenes. Furthermore, it is unclear whether pseudogenization itself can be selectively favored and thus play an active role in human evolution. Here we conduct a comparative genomic anal...

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Plos Biology : Onezoom ; a Fractal Explorer for the Tree of Life, ...

By: Christopher C. Pack
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Plos Biology : Revisiting an Old Riddle ; What Determines Genetic ...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)

Description : Understanding why some species have more genetic diversity than others is central to the study of ecology and evolution, and carries potentially important implications for conservation biology. Yet not only does this question remain unresolved, it has largely fallen into disregard. With the rapid decrease in sequencing costs, we argue that it is time to revive it.

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Plos Biology : Structural Analysis of Csos1A and the Protein Shell...

By: Daniel Herschlag

Description : The carboxysome is a bacterial organelle that functions to enhance the efficiency of CO2 fixation by encapsulating the enzymes ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase. The outer shell of the carboxysome is reminiscent of a viral capsid, being constructed from many copies of a few small proteins. Here we describe the structure of the shell protein CsoS1A from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. T...

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Plos Biology : How Plants Shut Out Bacteria, Volume 11

By: Robin Meadows

Description : Unlike animals, which breathe through airways lined with pathogen-trapping defenses, plants get air through tiny pores in their leaves that all but invite bacteria to sneak in. How, then, do plants keep them out? They slam their pores, or stomata, shut. Stomata are flanked by guard cells that swell when triggered by bacteria, thus closing the pores. Besides being fascinating in its own right, this defense response has implications for human health—stomata h...

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Plos Biology : Confi Rmation of Organized Modularity in the Yeast ...

By: Nicolas Bertin
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Plos Biology : Why Biotrophs Can’t Live Alone, Volume 9

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Functional Divergence Caused by Ancient Positive Se...

By: Mohamed Noor

Description : Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hyb...

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Plos Biology : Cftr Delivery to 25% of Surface Epithelial Cells Re...

By: Lennart Philipson

Description : Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL), mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal epithelium and submucosal gland acinar cells. Critical questions for the development of gene transfer strategi...

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Plos Biology : Polarised Asymmetric Inheritance of Accumulated Pro...

By: Peter Walter

Description : Disease-associated misfolded proteins or proteins damaged due to cellular stress are generally disposed via the cellular protein quality-control system. However, under saturating conditions, misfolded proteins will aggregate. In higher eukaryotes, these aggregates can be transported to accumulate in aggresomes at the microtubule organizing center. The fate of cells that contain aggresomes is currently unknown. Here we report that cells that have formed aggr...

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Plos Biology : Discovery-based Science Education ; Functional Geno...

By: Jiong Chen
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Plos Biology : Cholinergic Activation of M2 Receptors Leads to Con...

By: Alberto Bacci

Description : In many brain regions, inhibition is mediated by numerous classes of specialized interneurons, but within the rodent dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), a single class of interneuron is present. dLGN interneurons inhibit thalamocortical (TC) neurons and regulate the activity of TC neurons evoked by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), thereby controlling the visually evoked signals reaching the cortex. It is not known whether neuromodulation can regulate in...

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Plos Biology : Transcriptional Control in the Segmentation Gene Ne...

By: Mark A. Krasnow

Description : The segmentation gene network of Drosophila consists of maternal and zygotic factors that generate, by transcriptional (cross-) regulation, expression patterns of increasing complexity along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. Using known binding site information for maternal and zygotic gap transcription factors, the computer algorithm Ahab recovers known segmentation control elements (modules) with excellent success and predicts many novel modules ...

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Plos Biology : Live Imaging of Innate Immune Cell Sensing of Trans...

By: Christopher Kemp

Description : It has not previously been possible to live image the earliest interactions between the host environment and oncogenetransformed cells as they initiate formation of cancers within an organism. Here we take advantage of the translucency of zebrafish larvae to observe the host innate immune cell response as oncogene-transformed melanoblasts and goblet cells multiply within the larval skin. Our studies indicate activation of leukocytes at very early stages in ...

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Plos Biology : Regulatory Variation at Glypican-3 Underlies a Majo...

By: Jonathan Flint

Description : The genetic basis of variation in complex traits remains poorly understood, and few genes underlying variation have been identified. Previous work identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for much of the response to selection on growth in mice, effecting a change in body mass of approximately 20%. By fine-mapping, we have resolved the location of this QTL to a 660-kb region containing only two genes of known function, Gpc3 and Gpc4, and two o...

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Plos Biology : Combining Genome-wide Association Mapping and Trans...

By: Gibson Greg

Description : Background : Genome-wide association (GWA) is gaining popularity as a means to study the architecture of complex quantitative traits, partially due to the improvement of high-throughput low-cost genotyping and phenotyping technologies. Glucosinolate (GSL) secondary metabolites within Arabidopsis spp. can serve as a model system to understand the genomic architecture of adaptive quantitative traits. GSL are key anti-herbivory defenses that impart adaptive ad...

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Plos Biology : Novel Intermolecular Iterative Mechanism for Biosyn...

By: Tarun Chopra

Description : In recent years, remarkable versatility of polyketide synthases (PKSs) has been recognized: both in terms of their structural and functional organization as well as their ability to produce compounds other than typical secondary metabolites. Multifunctional Type I PKSs catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide products by either using the same active sites repetitively (iterative) or by using these catalytic domains only once (modular) during the entire biosy...

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