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Plos One : on the Characterization and Software Implementation of ...

By: Freddie Salsbury

Description : Abstract models of proteins have been widely used as a practical means to computationally investigate general properties of the system. In lattice models any sterically feasible conformation is represented as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and residue types are limited in number. So far, only two- or three-dimensional lattices have been used. The inspection of the neighborhood of alpha carbons in the core of real proteins reveals that also lattices with...

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Plos One : Microbial Reprogramming Inhibits Western Diet- Associat...

By: Laurel L. Lenz

Description : A recent epidemiological study showed that eating ‘fast food’ items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized ‘fast food’ diet, and found CD4+ T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes ...

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Plos One : Role of Ceacam1 and Ceacam20 in an in Vitro Model of Pr...

By: Kin Mang Lau

Description : CEACAM20, a novel member of the CEACAM1 gene family with expression limited to the lumen of small intestine, testes, and prostate, is co-expressed with CEACAM1 in adult prostate tissue and down-regulated to the same extent as CEACAM1 in prostate cancer. Since prostate cancer often involves loss of epithelial lumen formation, we hypothesized that CEACAM20 and CEACAM1 play important roles in lumen formation of normal prostate epithelium. When prostate cells w...

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Plos One : Automatic Sampling and Analysis of Organics and Biomole...

By: Toby James. Athersuch

Description : Contactless atmospheric pressure ionization (C-API) method has been recently developed for mass spectrometric analysis. A tapered capillary is used as both the sampling tube and spray emitter in C-API. No electric contact is required on the capillary tip during C-API mass spectrometric analysis. The simple design of the ionization method enables the automation of the C-API sampling system. In this study, we propose an automatic C-API sampling system consist...

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Plos One : Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism an...

By: Massimo Federici

Description : Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO) WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production...

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Plos One : Porcine Model of Hemophilia A, Volume 7

By: Christopher B. Doering

Description : Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have diff...

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Plos One : Influence of Comt Val158Met Genotype on the Depressed B...

By: Katharina Domschke

Description : Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with abnormal prefrontal-limbic interactions and altered catecholaminergic neurotransmission. The val158met polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation during both emotional processing and working memory (WM). Although COMT-genotype is not directly associated with MDD, it may affect MDD pathology by altering PFC activation, an ...

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Plos One : Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor a...

By: Nicolas Chaline

Description : In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves a...

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Plos One : Estrogen Deficiency Induces the Differentiation of Il-1...

By: Oliver Frey

Description : Th17 cells produce IL-17, and the latter promotes bone loss in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Blocking IL-17 action in mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis reduces disease symptoms. These observations suggest that Th17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss. However, the role of Th17 cell in estrogen (E2) deficiency-induced bone loss is still not very clear. We investigated the effect of E2 on Th17 differentiation in vivo and IL-17 media...

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Plos One : Isolation and Characterization of Two Kinds of Stem Cel...

By: Hemachandra Reddy

Description : Two kinds of stem cells, namely SKPs and dMSCs, can be isolated simultaneously from individual human skin sample from paraplegia patients. Both of them show ability to differentiate into neural cells under proper inducing conditions, indicating their potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury patients by autologous cell transplantation.

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Plos One : Effect of Fruit Juice on Cholesterol and Blood Pressure...

By: Qamaruddin Nizami

Description : This meta-analysis suggested that fruit juice had a borderline significant effect on reducing DBP, but had no effect on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations or SBP

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Plos One : Prenatal Nicotine and Maternal Deprivation Stress De- R...

By: Grace E. Stutzmann

Description : Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC), postnatal maternal deprivation (MD) or the combination of the two (NIC+MD) to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD a...

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Plos One : Neuropeptide S Facilitates Mice Olfactory Function Thro...

By: Pranela Rameshwar

Description : Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPS...

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Plos One : Using the Fast Fourier Transform to Accelerate the Comp...

By: Freddie Salsbury Jr

Description : Using complex roots of unity and the Fast Fourier Transform, we design a new thermodynamics-based algorithm, FFTbor, that computes the Boltzmann probability that secondary structures differ by k base pairs from an arbitrary initial structure of a given RNA sequence. The algorithm, which runs in quartic time O(n4) and quadratic space O(n2), is used to determine the correlation between kinetic folding speed and the ruggedness of the energy landscape, and to p...

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Plos One : Enhanced Periosteal and Endocortical Responses to Axial...

By: Ryan K. Roeder

Description : The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) is involved in mechanotransduction in bone. Recent studies using in vivo models of conditional Cx43 gene (Gja1) deletion in the osteogenic linage have generated inconsistent results, with Gja1 ablation resulting in either attenuated or enhanced response to mechanical load, depending upon the skeletal site examined or the type of load applied. To gain further insights on Cx43 and mechanotransduction, we examined bo...

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Plos One : Differential Expression of Surface Markers in Mouse Bon...

By: Xing-ming Shi

Description : Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitors with potential for generation of skeletal tissues. However the identity of BM MSC subpopulations is poorly defined mainly due to the absence of specific markers allowing in situ localization of those cells and isolation of pure cell types. Here, we aimed at characterization of surface markers in mouse BM MSCs and in their subsets with distinct differentiation...

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Plos One : Bone Marrow Stromal and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Ha...

By: Paolo Antonio Beltrami

Description : The ability of cells to detect changes in the microenvironment is important in cell signaling and responsiveness to environmental fluctuations. Our interest is in understanding how human bone marrow stromal-derived cells (MSC) and their relatives, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), interact with their environment through novel receptors. We found, through a proteomics screen, that MSC express the bitter taste receptor, TAS2R46, a protein more typically lo...

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Plos One : Population and Landscape Genetics of an Introduced Spec...

By: Joäo Pinto

Description : The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17th century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although pre...

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Plos One : Differential Gene Expression from Genome-wide Microarra...

By: Ioannis P. Androulakis

Description : The Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) layer lines have been selected for high egg production since more than 50 years and belong to the worldwide leading commercial layer lines. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the molecular processes that are different among these two layer lines using whole genome RNA expression profiles. The hens were kept in the newly developed small group housing system Eurovent German with t...

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Plos One : Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation with Car...

By: Stefan Kiechl

Description : In human pathology, several diseases are associated with somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Even though mitochondrial dysfunction leads to increased oxidative stress, the role of mitochondrial mutations in atherosclerosis has not received much attention so far. In this study we analyzed the association of mitochondrial genetic variation with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and...

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