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Plos One : Early and Efficient Detection of Mycobacterium Tubercul...

By: Madhukar Pai

Description : Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured...

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Plos One : Predictors and Consequences of Global Dna Methylation i...

By: Osman El-maarri

Description : DNA methylation changes have been implicated in many common chronic diseases leading to the hypothesis that environmental and age-related DNA methylation changes within individuals are involved in disease etiology. Few studies have examined DNA methylation changes within an individual over time and all of these studies have been conducted in adults. Here, we aim to characterize how global DNA methylation changes from birth to age three within a longitudinal...

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Plos One : Ammonium Accumulation and Cell Death in a Rat 3D Brain ...

By: Thomas H. Gillingwater

Description : Glutaric aciduria type I (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is an inborn error of metabolism that usually manifests in infancy by an acute encephalopathic crisis and often results in permanent motor handicap. Biochemical hallmarks of this disease are elevated levels of glutarate and 3-hydroxyglutarate in blood and urine. The neuropathology of this disease is still poorly understood, as low lysine diet and carnitine supplementation do not always prevent...

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Plos One : a Genome-wide Survey of Highly Expressed Non-coding Rna...

By: Alfredo Herrera-estrella

Description : Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that has the natural ability of delivering and integrating a piece of its own DNA into plant genome. Although bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate various biological processes including virulence, we have limited knowledge of how Agrobacterium ncRNAs regulate this unique inter- Kingdom gene transfer. Using whole transcriptome sequencing and an ncRNA search algorithm developed for this w...

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Plos One : Post-breeding Season Migrations of a Top Predator, the ...

By: Andreas Fahlman

Description : Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservatio...

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Plos One : Dengue in Travelers ; Kinetics of Viremia and Ns1 Antig...

By: Eng Eong Ooi

Description : Despite the increasing numbers of travel-acquired dengue, few studies have assessed virologic markers of the disease in non-endemic populations. We examined the kinetics of diagnostic markers and their associations with clinical parameters in 93 patients with travel-acquired dengue fever. Kinetics analyses suggested a longer average duration for viremia (9 days, CI95% : 8–10) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigenemia (15 days, CI95% : 12–20) than repor...

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Plos One : Intravenous Ferric Chloride Hexahydrate Supplementation...

By: Thomas Thum

Description : A cumulative dose of IV Atofen .800 mg within 6 months was associated with an adverse CV outcome and a higher mortality among chronic HD patients. The detrimental effects of IV iron supplementation were partly due to the increased oxidative stress and induction of MNC adhesion to endothelial cells, a pivotal index of early atherogenesis.

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Plos One : Migraine Strikes as Neuronal Excitability Reaches a Tip...

By: Claudia Sommer

Description : Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factor...

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Plos One : Association of Educational, Occupational and Socioecono...

By: Vineet Gipta

Description : Low educational, occupational and socioeconomic status asian indians have greater prevalence of truncal obesity, low HDL cho:esterol, hypertriglycerdemia, smoking or tobacco use and low physical activity and clustering of > = 3 major cardiovascular risk factor.

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Plos One : Mirandola ; Extracellular Circulating Micrornas Databas...

By: K.T. Jeang

Description : MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of various biological processes through their interaction with cellular messenger RNAs. They are frequently dysregulated in cancer and have shown great potential as tissue-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. microRNAs are also present in extracellular human body fluids such as serum, plasma, saliva, and urine. Most of circulating microRNAs are present i...

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Plos One : Stem Cell-like Differentiation Potentials of Endometria...

By: Yao Liang Tang

Description : We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue reconstitution. Using this assay, we demonstrated that ESP cells differentiated into multiple endometrial lineages in the niche provided by whole endometrial cells, indicating that ESP cells are genuine endometrial stem/progenitor cells.

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Plos One : Targeting Gastrin-releasing Peptide Suppresses Neurobla...

By: Rossella Rota

Description : We have previously demonstrated the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) as an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma. Here, we report that GRP silencing regulates cell signaling involved in the invasion-metastasis cascade. Using a doxycycline inducible system, we demonstrate that GRP silencing decreased anchorage-independent growth, inhibited migration and neuroblastoma cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro, and suppressed metastasis in vivo. Targeted ...

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Plos One : Synergistic Re-activation of Epigenetically Silenced Ge...

By: Wei-guo Zhu

Description : Epigenetic gene silencing, mediated by aberrant promoter DNA hypermethylation and repressive histone modifications, is a hallmark of cancer. Although heritable, the dynamic nature and potential reversibility through pharmacological interventions make such aberrations attractive targets. Since cancers contain multiple epigenetic abnormalities, combining therapies that target different defects could potentially enhance their individual efficacies. 5-Aza-2’-de...

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Plos One : a Single-day Treatment with Mifepristone is Sufficient ...

By: Judith Homberg

Description : Our results emphasize that studies into the therapeutical efficacy of new antidepressants, especially those targeting HPA-activity or the glucocorticoid receptor, should explore the possibility to reduce treatment duration

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Plos One : Decreased Mitochondrial Dna Content in Association with...

By: Guillermo Lopez-lluch

Description : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial dam...

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Plos One : Scale Dependent Behavioral Responses to Human Developme...

By: Brock Fenton

Description : The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicatin...

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Plos One : Upregulated Expression of Integrin A1 in Mesangial Cell...

By: Shree Ram Singh

Description : Alport disease in humans, which usually results in proteinuria and kidney failure, is caused by mutations to the COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 genes, and absence of collagen a3a4a5(IV) networks found in mature kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The Alport mouse harbors a deletion of the Col4a3 gene, which also results in the lack of GBM collagen a3a4a5(IV). This animal model shares many features with human Alport patients, including the retention of col...

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Plos One : Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothe...

By: Sharon Gursky-doyen

Description : Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of ca...

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Plos One : Fh535 Inhibited Migration and Growth of Breast Cancer C...

By: Masaru Katoh

Description : There is substantial evidence indicating that the WNT signaling pathway is activated in various cancer cell types including breast cancer. Previous studies reported that FH535, a small molecule inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway, decreased growth of cancer cells but not normal fibroblasts, suggesting this pathway plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we tested FH535 as a potential inhibitor for malignant phenotypes of breast c...

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Plos One : Opc Expression, Lps Immunotype Switch and Pilin Convers...

By: Brian Stevenson

Description : Neisseria meningitidis employs polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins to cope with human serum complement attack. To screen for factors influencing serum resistance, an assay was developed based on a colorimetric serum bactericidal assay. The screening used a genetically modified sequence type (ST)-41/44 clonal complex (cc) strain lacking LPS sialylation, polysaccharide capsule, the factor H binding protein (fHbp) and MutS, a protein of the DNA repair ...

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