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Plos One : Dimerization of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin Requires...

By: Matthew Bogyo

Description : Laforin, encoded by a gene that is mutated in Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780), is a modular protein composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain. Laforin is the founding member of the glucanphosphatase family and regulates the levels of phosphate present in glycogen. Multiple reports have described the capability of laforin to form dimers, although the function of these dimers and their relationship with LD remains un...

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Plos One : Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells Are Enriched in Side Populati...

By: Shannon M. Hawkins

Description : Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiaiting cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have selfrenewal capacity, differentiation potential and high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs of ovarian cancer have been isolated by side population (SP) analysis, ALDEFLUOR assay and using cell surface markers. However, these approaches are not definitive markers for CSCs/CICs, and it is necessary to refine recent methods for identifyin...

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Plos One : Ascl1 Mash1 Knockout Perturbs Differentiation of Nonneu...

By: John I. Glendinning

Description : The embryonic olfactory epithelium (OE) generates only a very few olfactory sensory neurons when the basic helix-loophelix transcription factor, ASCL1 (previously known as MASH1) is eliminated by gene mutation. We have closely examined the structure and composition of the OE of knockout mice and found that the absence of neurons dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple other epithelial cell types as well. The most prominent effect is observed wi...

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Plos One : Transcriptome Changes Associated with Delayed Flower Se...

By: Richard C. Willson

Description : Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1- 1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic...

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Plos One : the Linker Pivot in Ci-vsp ; the Key to Unlock Catalysi...

By: Steven Barnes

Description : In the voltage-sensitive phosphatase Ci-VSP, conformational changes in the transmembrane voltage sensor domain (VSD) are transduced to the intracellular catalytic domain (CD) leading to its dephosphorylation activity against membraneembedded phosphoinositides. The linker between both domains is proposed to be crucial for the VSD-CD coupling. With a combined approach of electrophysiological measurements on Xenopus oocytes and molecular dynamics simulations o...

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Plos One : Sex-related Effects of Reproduction on Biomarkers of Ox...

By: Cedric Sueur

Description : According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we focus on the ...

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Plos One : 13C-13C Homonuclear Recoupling in Solid-state Nuclear M...

By: Annalisa Pastore

Description : Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of 13C-13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of...

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Plos One : Purification, Gene Cloning, and Biochemical Characteriz...

By: J. Van Mark Raaij

Description : The triglucoside of sesaminol, i.e., 2,6-O-di(b-D-glucopyranosyl)-b-D- glucopyranosylsesaminol (STG), occurs abundantly in sesame seeds and sesame oil cake and serves as an inexpensive source for the industrial production of sesaminol, an antioxidant that displays a number of bioactivities beneficial to human health. However, STG has been shown to be highly resistant to the action of b-glucosidases, in part due to its branched-chain glycon structure, and th...

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Plos One : a Comparative Quantitative Assessment of Axonal and Den...

By: Emanuele Buratti

Description : Translation of mRNA in axons and dendrites enables a rapid supply of proteins to specific sites of localization within the neuron. Distinct mRNA-containing cargoes, including granules and mitochondrial mRNA, are transported within neuronal projections. The distributions of these cargoes appear to change during neuronal development, but details on the dynamics of mRNA transport during these transitions remain to be elucidated. For this study, we have develop...

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Plos One : Gliadin Peptides Induce Tissue Transglutaminase Activat...

By: Maria Gasset

Description : By inducing Ca2+ mobilization from the ER, peptide 31–43 could promote an ER-stress pathway that may be relevant in CD pathogenesis. Furthermore, peptides 31–43 and 57–68, by activating intracellular tTG, could alter inflammatory key regulators, and induce deamidation of immunogenic peptides and gliadin–tTG crosslinking in enterocytes and specialized antigen-presenting cells.

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Plos One : Four Heat Shock Protein Genes of the Endoparasitoid Was...

By: Didier Picard

Description : Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play important roles in the environmental adaptation of various organisms. To explore the functions of Hsps in relation to heat stress and development in Cotesia vestalis, a solitary larval endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella, four heat shock protein genes, CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and CvHsp90, were cloned and sequenced from C. vestalis by real-time quantitative PCR and RACE. The cDNA sequence of CvHsp40, CvHsc70, CvHsp70 and C...

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Plos One : One Small Step for Rhinos, One Giant Leap for Wildlife ...

By: Pascale Chavatte-palmer

Description : Chronic foot disease poses a threat to the general health, represents a tremendous clinical challenge, and often is a reason for euthanasia in captive megaherbivores, among them the elephant and rhinoceros. Nevertheless, apart from the elephant, foot pathology is handled as being confined only to soft tissues whereas bone pathology is often overlooked. As a case in point, the authors selected the second largest mammal on land, the rhinoceros. We performed a...

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Plos One : Nation-wide, Web-based, Geographic Information System f...

By: Shamala Devi Sekaran

Description : Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operati...

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Plos One : Food Preferences of Winter Bird Communities in Differen...

By: Sean Walker

Description : Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech) during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwa¨bische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communi...

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Plos One : Different Roles of the Mevalonate and Methylerythritol ...

By: Miguel A. Blazquez

Description : Salvia miltiorrhiza has been widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids are the main active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Two biosynthetic pathways were involved in tanshinone biosynthesis in plants : the mevalonate (MVA) pathway in the cytosol and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the MVA ...

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Plos One : Hypovitaminosis D and Mild Hypocalcaemia Are Highly Pre...

By: Heiner K. Berthold

Description : Our study suggests that calcium and vitamin D deficiencies represent a major public health concern in Vietnam. Thus, actions to improve the vitamin D and calcium status of the Vietnamese population should be considered.

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Plos One : Mor is Not Enough ; Identification of Novel Mu-opioid R...

By: Brandon K. Harvey

Description : The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is the G-protein coupled receptor primarily responsible for mediating the analgesic and rewarding properties of opioid agonist drugs such as morphine, fentanyl, and heroin. We have utilized a combination of traditional and modified membrane yeast two-hybrid screening methods to identify a cohort of novel MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs). The interaction between the MOR and a subset of MORIPs was validated in pulldown, coimmunop...

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Plos One : Cxcl17 Expression by Tumor Cells Recruits Cd11B+gr1High...

By: Soumitro Pal

Description : These results suggest that aberrant expression of CXCL17 in tumor cells recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and promotes tumor progression through angiogenesis.

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Plos One : Poor Prognosis of Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Decreased...

By: Masaru Katoh

Description : Background : The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) repressor (AHRR), a member of growing superfamily, is a basic-helixloop- helix/Per-AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) protein. Recently, AHRR has been proposed to function as a putative new tumor suppressor gene based on some relevant studies in multiple types of human cancers. This current study aims to investigate AHHR expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric adenocarcinoma....

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Plos One : Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins ; a New Approach to Mi...

By: Srinivas Kaveri

Description : Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibit...

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