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Plos One : Deltex-1 Activates Mitotic Signaling and Proliferation ...

By: Jeffrey K. Harrison

Description : Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system originating in glial cells. GBM results in more years of life lost than any other cancer type. Low levels of Notch receptor expression correlates with prolonged survival in various high grade gliomas independent of other markers. Different downstream pathways of Notch receptors have been identified. We tested if the Notch/Deltex pathway, which is distinct from the canonical...

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Plos One : Descriptive Epidemiology and Underlying Psychiatric Dis...

By: Allan Siegel

Description : The NHDS provides new insights into the demographics and psychiatric morbidity of those hospitalized with SDV. Classification of SDV as self-injury or self-poisoning provides an additional parameter useful to epidemiologic studies.

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Plos One : Cytosolic Phospholipase A2Α and Eicosanoids Regulate Ex...

By: Alix Therese Coste

Description : The role of Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) activation in regulating macrophage transcriptional responses to Candida albicans infection was investigated. cPLA2α releases arachidonic acid for the production of eicosanoids. In mouse resident peritoneal macrophages, prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 were produced within minutes of C. albicans addition before cyclooxygenase 2 expression. The production of TNFα was lower in C. albic...

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Plos One : Central Control of Circadian Phase in Arousal-promoting...

By: Shin Yamazaki

Description : Cells of the dorsomedial/lateral hypothalamus (DMH/LH) that produce hypocretin (HCRT) promote arousal in part by activation of cells of the locus coeruleus (LC) which express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives endogenous daily rhythms, including those of sleep and wakefulness. These circadian oscillations are generated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop in which the Period (Per) genes constitute critical compon...

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Plos One : an Active Factor from Tomato Root Exudates Plays an Imp...

By: Shree Ram Singh

Description : Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF) that i...

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Plos One : ‘‘self’’ Versus ‘‘non-self’’ Connectivity Dictates Prop...

By: Anna Dunaevsky

Description : Autapses are connections between a neuron and itself. These connections are morphologically similar to ‘‘normal’’ synapses between two different neurons, and thus were long thought to have similar properties of synaptic transmission. However, this has not been directly tested. Here, using a micro-island culture assay in which we can define the number of interconnected cells, we directly compared synaptic transmission in excitatory autapses and in two-neuron...

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Plos One : Mepe-derived Asarm Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differe...

By: Irina Kerkis

Description : Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide 2 a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization 2 derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phospho...

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Plos One : N-way Fret Microscopy of Multiple Protein-protein Inter...

By: James P. Brody

Description : Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to visualize nanoscale proteinprotein interactions while capturing their microscale organization and millisecond dynamics. Recently, FRET microscopy was extended to imaging of multiple donor-acceptor pairs, thereby enabling visualization of multiple biochemical events within a single living cell. These methods require numerous equations that must be defined on a case-by-...

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Plos One : Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species ; Greenh...

By: Subba Reddy Palli

Description : Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We...

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Plos One : Ikke Knockout Prevents High Fat Diet Induced Arterial A...

By: Markus M. Heimesaat

Description : The knockout of IKKe prevented significant atherosclerosis lesions in the mouse aorta from in both wild-type and ApoE knockout mice fed a HFD, suggesting that IKKe may play a vital role in HFD-induced atherosclerosis and would be an important target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

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Plos One : Stem Cell-like Differentiation Potentials of Endometria...

By: Yao Liang Tang

Description : We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue reconstitution. Using this assay, we demonstrated that ESP cells differentiated into multiple endometrial lineages in the niche provided by whole endometrial cells, indicating that ESP cells are genuine endometrial stem/progenitor cells.

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Plos One : a Mathematical Model of the Mouse Ventricular Myocyte C...

By: Xiongwen Chen

Description : Mathematical models of cardiac function at the cellular level include three major components, such as electrical activity, Ca2+ dynamics, and cellular shortening. We developed a model for mouse ventricular myocyte contraction which is based on our previously published comprehensive models of action potential and Ca2+ handling mechanisms. The model was verified with extensive experimental data on mouse myocyte contraction at room temperature. In the model, w...

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Plos One : Microglia Actively Regulate the Number of Functional Sy...

By: Anna Dunaevsky

Description : Microglia are the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. In the physiological setting, their highly motile processes continually survey the local brain parenchyma and transiently contact synaptic elements. Although recent work has shown that the interaction of microglia with synapses contributes to synaptic remodeling during development, the role of microglia in synaptic physiology is just starting to get explored. To assess this question, we ...

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Plos One : Childhood Psychological Problems in School Settings in ...

By: Marianna Mazza

Description : The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children’s education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

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Plos One : the Development of Visual Areas Depends Differently on ...

By: Hans P. Op De Beeck

Description : Visual experience plays an important role in the development of the visual cortex: however, recent functional imaging studies have shown that the functional organization is preserved in several higher-tier visual areas in congenitally blind subjects, indicating that maturation of visual areas depend unequally on visual experience. In this study, we aim to validate this hypothesis using a multimodality MRI approach. We found increased cortical thickness in t...

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Plos One : What Caused the Uk’s Largest Common Dolphin Delphinus D...

By: Andreas Fahlman

Description : On 9 June 2008, the UK’s largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) a...

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Plos One : Telomere Length Variation in Juvenile Acute Myocardial ...

By: Giuseppe Biondi-zoccai

Description : Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) provides a potential marker of biological age, closely related to the endothelial dysfunction and consequently to the atherosclerotic process. To investigate the relationship between the LTL and the risk of premature acute myocardial infarction and to evaluate the predictive value of LTL on the onset of major cardiovascular events, 199 patients from 18 to 48 years old with first diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were e...

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Plos One : Pathways of Economic Inequalities in Maternal and Child...

By: César A. Hidalgo

Description : Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in maternal and child health outcomes in urban India.

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Plos One : Aflatoxin B1 Up-regulates Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 ...

By: André Frédéric

Description : Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that can induce hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide, one of AFB1 metabolites, acts as a mutagen to react with DNA and induce gene mutations, including the tumor suppressor p53. In addition, AFB1 reportedly stimulates IGF receptor activation. Aberrant activation of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is tightly associated with various types of human tumors. In the current study, we investigated the effects ...

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Plos One : Chromosome Inversions, Genomic Differentiation and Spec...

By: Basil Brooke

Description : The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is characterized by multiple polymorphic chromosomal inversions and has become widely studied as a system for exploring models of speciation. Near complete reproductive isolation between different inversion types, known as chromosomal forms, has led to the suggestion that A. gambiae is in early stages of speciation, with divergence evolving in the face of considerable gene flow. We compared the standard chromos...

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