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Plos One : Prospective Study on the Effectiveness of Complementary...

By: Qamaruddin Nizami

Description : Our results indicated that an intervention using complementary food supplements could improve nutritional status and elevate hemoglobin level in elder infants and young children, which would significantly decrease the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia

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Plos One : Increased Respiratory Disease Mortality at a Microwave ...

By: Thomas Behrens

Description : Workers at the microwave popcorn company experienced normal rates of all-cause mortality but higher rates of COPD-associated mortality, especially workers employed before the company reduced diacetyl exposure. The demonstrated excess in COPD-associated mortality suggests continued efforts to lower flavoring exposure are prudent.

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Plos One : Elementary School-based Influenza Vaccination ; Evaluat...

By: Benjamin J. Cowling

Description : Detection of laboratory-confirmed influenza in schools was challenging due to multiple consent requirements, difficulty obtaining samples from absent children, and a mild influenza season. School-based influenza vaccination was associated with reduced absenteeism due to fever or cough illness, but not absenteeism for other reasons. Although nonspecific, absence due to fever or cough illness may be a useful surrogate endpoint in school-based studies if ident...

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Plos One : the Hedgehog Receptor Patched1 in T Cells is Dispensabl...

By: Andreas Villunger

Description : Hedgehog (Hh) signaling modulates T cell development and function but its exact role remains a matter of debate. To further address this issue we made use of conditional knock-out mice in which the Hh receptor Patched1 (Ptch) is inactivated in the T cell lineage. Thymocyte development was moderately compromised by the deletion of Ptch as characterized by reduced numbers of CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells. In contrast, peripheral T cells were not affected....

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Plos One : Improvement in Renal Hemodynamics Following Combined An...

By: Nick Ashton

Description : Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a powerful modulator of renal hemodynamic and fluid homeostasis. Up-regulation in components of intra-renal RAS occurs with ageing. Recently we reported that 2 year old uninephrectomised (uni-x) female sheep have low renin hypertension and reduced renal function. By 5 years of age, these uni-x sheep had augmented decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) compared to sham. We hypothesised that this decrease in RBF in 5 year old uni...

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Plos One : Susceptibility Weighted Imaging ; a New Tool in the Dia...

By: Xiaoliang Zhang

Description : More apparent prostate hemorrhages were detected on SWI than on conventional MRI or CT. SWI may provide valuable information for the differential diagnosis between prostate cancer and prostatic hyperplasia. Filtered phase images can identify prostatic calcifications as well as CT.

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Plos One : Effect of Stacked Insecticidal Cry Proteins from Maize ...

By: Kostas Bourtzis

Description : Honey bee pollination is a key ecosystem service to nature and agriculture. However, biosafety research on genetically modified crops rarely considers effects on nurse bees from intact colonies, even though they receive and primarily process the largest amount of pollen. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of nurse bees and their gut bacteria to pollen from Bt maize expressing three different insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2...

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Plos One : Prevalence of Hepatitis B in Insular Regions of Southea...

By: Haitao Guo

Description : Due to the geographic location, we found that the HBV prevalence and potential for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma remained high in insular regions of southeast China, and are far above the national figures. Although a vaccination program has been in effect over the last 20 years, several additional measures should be adopted by the government to limit the spread of hepatitis B. These include the management of high risk persons and the floating ...

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Plos One : the Secret to Successful Deep-sea Invasion ; Does Low T...

By: Paul Eckhard Witten

Description : There is a general consensus that today’s deep-sea biodiversity has largely resulted from recurrent invasions and speciations occurring through homogenous waters during periods of the Phanerozoic eon. Migrations likely continue today, primarily via isothermal water columns, such as those typical of Polar Regions, but the necessary ecological and physiological adaptations behind them are poorly understood. In an evolutionary context, understanding the adapta...

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Plos One : Testing Surrogacy Assumptions ; Can Threatened and Enda...

By: David L. Roberts

Description : There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, amo...

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Plos One : Evolution of Peromyscus Leucopus Mice in Response to a ...

By: Christine A. Kozak

Description : Many wildlife species are propagated in captivity as models for behavioral, physiological, and genetic research or to provide assurance populations to protect threatened species. However, very little is known about how animals evolve in the novel environment of captivity. The histories of most laboratory strains are poorly documented, and protected populations of wildlife species are usually too small and too short-term to allow robust statistical analysis....

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Plos One : Reversal of Succinylcholine Induced Apnea with an Organ...

By: Lucrecia M. Alvarez

Description : Recombinant plant-derived butyrylcholinesterase was capable of counteracting and reversing apnea in two complementary models of lethal succinylcholine toxicity, completely preventing mortality. This study of a protein antidote validates the feasibility of protection and treatment of overdose from succinylcholine as well as other biologically active butyrylcholinesterase substrates.

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Plos One : the Stack ; a New Bacterial Structure Analyzed in the A...

By: Mitchell F. Balish

Description : In recent years, improvements in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and the use of tomography have provided a more accurate view of the complexity of the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells. Cryoimmobilization of specimens by rapid cooling followed by freeze substitution (FS) and sectioning, freeze fracture (FF) and observation of replica, or cryoelectron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) now allow visualization of biological samples ...

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Plos One : Lipopolysaccharide-induced Lung Injury is Independent o...

By: Christian Taube

Description : Vitamin D deficiency is increasing in incidence around the world. Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, has documented effects on the innate and adaptive immune system, including macrophage and T regulatory (Treg) cell function. Since Treg cells are important in acute lung injury resolution, we hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency increases the severity of injury and delays injury resolution in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury. Vitamin D def...

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Plos One : High-contrast Fluorescence Imaging in Fixed and Living ...

By: Yingxiao Wang

Description : We present the design, synthesis and characterization of new functionalized fluorescent optical switches for rapid, all-visible light-mediated manipulation of fluorescence signals from labelled structures within living cells, and as probes for highcontrast optical lock-in detection (OLID) imaging microscopy. A triazole-substituted BIPS (TzBIPS) is identified from a rational synthetic design strategy that undergoes robust, rapid and reversible, visible light...

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Plos One : Automated Genotyping of Biobank Samples by Multiplex Am...

By: Claire Wade

Description : The genomic revolution in oncology will entail mutational analyses of vast numbers of patient-matched tumor and normal tissue samples. This has meant an increased risk of patient sample mix up due to manual handling. Therefore, scalable genotyping and sample identification procedures are essential to pathology biobanks. We have developed an efficient alternative to traditional genotyping methods suited for automated analysis. By targeting 53 prevalent delet...

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Plos One : Identification of Circulating Micrornas as Potential Bi...

By: Wei Yan

Description : Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. The disease is characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities with distinct prognoses and gene expression profiles. Emerging evidence has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could serve as noninvasive biomarkers for cancer detection: however, little is known about circulating miRNA profiles in AML patients. In this study, a genome-wide serum miRNA expressio...

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Plos One : Properties and Molecular Determinants of the Natural Fl...

By: Mark J Van Raaij

Description : The natural flavone acacetin has been demonstrated to inhibit transient outward potassium current (Ito) in human atrial myocytes. However, the molecular determinants of acacetin for blocking Ito are unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the properties and molecular determinants of this compound for blocking hKv4.3 channels (coding Ito) stably expressed in HEK 293 cells using the approaches of whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique and mut...

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Plos One : Mitigation of Oxidative Damage by Green Tea Polyphenols...

By: D William Cameron

Description : Our study demonstrated that GTP and TC interventions were effective strategies of reducing the levels of oxidative stress, a putative mechanism for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and more importantly, working in an additive manner, which holds the potential as alternative tools to improve bone health in this population.

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Plos One : Habitat Selection and Behaviour of a Reintroduced Passe...

By: Johan J. Bolhuis

Description : Habitat restoration can play an important role in recovering functioning ecosystems and improving biodiversity. Restoration may be particularly important in improving habitat prior to species reintroductions. We reintroduced seven brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus) social groups into two nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory in south-eastern Australia. This study provided a unique opportunity to understand the interactions between restor...

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