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Plos One : Nicotinic Receptor Β2 Determines Nk Cell-dependent Meta...

By: Fabrizio Mattei

Description : Cigarette smoke exposure markedly compromises the ability of the immune system to protect against invading pathogens and tumorigenesis. Nicotine is a psychoactive component of tobacco products that acts as does the natural neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, on nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Here we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells strongly express nAChR b2. Nicotine exposure impairs the ability of NK cells to kill target cells and release cytokines, ...

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Plos One : Long-term Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Extract Induces H...

By: Keith William Brown

Description : Cigarette smoking is the single most important epidemiological risk factor for bladder cancer but it is not known whether exposure of urothelial cells to the systemic soluble contents of cigarette smoke is directly causative to bladder cancer and the associated epigenetic changes such as tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation. We undertook this study to investigate if long-term treatment of human urothelial cells with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) results i...

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Plos One : a Role of Eye Vergence in Covert Attention, Volume 7

By: Susana Martinez-conde

Description : Covert spatial attention produces biases in perceptual and neural responses in the absence of overt orienting movements. The neural mechanism that gives rise to these effects is poorly understood. Here we report the relation between fixational eye movements, namely eye vergence, and covert attention. Visual stimuli modulate the angle of eye vergence as a function of their ability to capture attention. This illustrates the relation between eye vergence and b...

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Plos One : Y-chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses, Volume 8

By: Michael Hofreiter

Description : Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these bree...

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Plos One : Body Mass Index and Mortality in Non-hispanic Black Adu...

By: Yi Ning

Description : Our findings suggest that overweight is related to an increased risk of death in black men, but not in black women, while obesity is related to an increased risk of death in both black men and women. A large pooled analysis of existing studies is needed to systematically evaluate the association between a wide range of BMIs and total mortality in blacks.

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Plos One : Blt2 Up-regulates Interleukin-8 Production and Promotes...

By: Dennis J. Templeton

Description : Taken together, our study demonstrates that a BLT2–ROS–NF-kB pathway up-regulates IL-8 production in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, thereby contributing to the invasiveness of these aggressive breast cancer cells. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of invasiveness in breast cancer.

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Plos One : Strand-specific Rna-seq Reveals Ordered Patterns of Sen...

By: Patrick Tan

Description : Background : Although genome-wide transcriptional analysis has been used for many years to study bacterial gene expression, many aspects of the bacterial transcriptome remain undefined. One example is antisense transcription, which has been observed in a number of bacteria, though the function of antisense transcripts, and their distribution across the bacterial genome, is still unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings : Single-stranded RNA-seq results revea...

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Plos One : Chronic Resveratrol Treatment Protects Pancreatic Islet...

By: Kathrin Maedler

Description : Resveratrol (RSV) has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions which may contribute to its cardiovascular protective effects. We examined whether RSV has any beneficial effects on pancreatic islets in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The db/db and db/dm mice (non-diabetic control) were treated with (db-RSV) or without RSV (db-control) (20 mg/ kg daily) for 12 weeks. After performing an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tole...

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Plos One : the Murine Th2 Locus Undergoes Epigenetic Modification ...

By: Jason Glenn Knott

Description : Epigenetic modifications play a central role in the differentiation and function of immune cells in adult animals. Developmentally regulated epigenetic patterns also appear to contribute to the ontogeny of the immune system. We show here that the epigenetic profile of the T-helper (Th) 2 locus undergoes changes in T lineage cells beginning in mid-gestation and extending throughout the first week of life. In particular, regulatory regions of the Th2 locus ar...

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Plos One : Default Mode Network in the Effects of D9- Tetrahydroca...

By: Carles Soriano-mas

Description : Evidence is increasing for involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cognitive functions including attention and executive function, as well as in psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits, such as schizophrenia. Executive function appears to be associated with both modulation of active networks and inhibition of activity in the default mode network. In the present study, we examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in executive fun...

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Plos One : Mberfp, an Improved Large Stokes Shift Red Fluorescent ...

By: D. Dafydd Jones

Description : Herein, we describe the generation of a monomeric large Stokes shift (LSS) red fluorescent protein, mBeRFP, with excitation and emission peaks at 446 and 615 nm, respectively. Compared with two previously reported LSS-RFPs (mKeima and LSSmKate2), mBeRFP is approximately three times brighter. In addition, mBeRFP is characterized by improved photostability, rapid maturation, an extended lifetime, and a monomeric nature. Additionally, mBeRFP can be paired with...

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Plos One : Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology ; Mapping Knowle...

By: Thomas Preiss

Description : We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system’s structure— the objects that comprise the system, and behavior—how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down ap...

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Plos One : Human Fear Acquisition Deficits in Relation to Genetic ...

By: Katharina Domschke

Description : The ability to identify predictors of aversive events allows organisms to appropriately respond to these events, and failure to acquire these fear contingencies can lead to maladaptive contextual anxiety. Recently, preclinical studies demonstrated that the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin systems are interactively involved in adaptive fear acquisition. Here, 150 healthy medication-free human subjects completed a cue and context fear conditioning...

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Plos One : Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with...

By: G. Thomas

Description : The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. T...

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Plos One : Very Early Passive Cycling Exercise in Mechanically Ven...

By: Alejandro Lucia

Description : In our study, this very early passive cycling exercise in sedated, critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients was considered safe and was not associated with significant alterations in hemodynamic, respiratory or metabolic variables even in those requiring vasoactive agents.

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Plos One : Heterogeneity in White Blood Cells Has Potential to Con...

By: Brock C. Christensen

Description : Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50–17...

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Plos One : Transitory Versus Persistent Effects of Connectivity in...

By: Nicolas Mouquet

Description : While the effect of habitat connectivity on local and regional diversity has been analysed in a number of studies, timedependent dynamics in metacommunities have received comparatively little consideration. When local patches of a metacommunity are identical in environmental conditions but differ in initial community composition, dispersal among patches may result in homogenization of local communities. In a microcosm experiment with benthic ciliates, we te...

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Plos One : Varroa-virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Coloni...

By: Stephen J. Martin

Description : Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a yearlong study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions : Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 col...

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Plos One : Estimation of Hiv Incidence in a Large, Community- Base...

By: Yury E. Khudyakov

Description : In this community-randomized trial, a MAA was used to estimate HIV incidence in a single, cross-sectional post-intervention survey. Results from this analysis were subsequently used to compare HIV incidence in the control and intervention communities.

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Plos One : when Women Deliver with No One Present in Nigeria ; Who...

By: Tiziana Leone

Description : With the current maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 630/100,000 live births, Nigeria ranks among the nations with the highest mortality rates in the world. The use of skilled assistants during delivery has been identified a key predictor in the reduction of mortality rates in the world over. Not only are Nigerian women predominantly using unskilled attendants, one in five births are delivered with No One Present (NOP). We assessed who, what, where and the so...

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